- Open Access
SynthEx: a synthetic-normal-based DNA sequencing tool for copy number alteration detection and tumor heterogeneity profiling
- Grace O. Silva†1, 2, 3,
- Marni B. Siegel†1, 3,
- Lisle E. Mose3,
- Joel S. Parker1, 3,
- Wei Sun5,
- Charles M. Perou1, 2, 3 and
- Mengjie Chen4Email authorView ORCID ID profile
© The Author(s). 2017
- Received: 15 November 2016
- Accepted: 16 March 2017
- Published: 8 April 2017
Changes in the quantity of genetic material, known as somatic copy number alterations (CNAs), can drive tumorigenesis. Many methods exist for assessing CNAs using microarrays, but considerable technical issues limit current CNA calling based upon DNA sequencing. We present SynthEx, a novel tool for detecting CNAs from whole exome and genome sequencing. SynthEx utilizes a “synthetic-normal” strategy to overcome technical and financial issues. In terms of accuracy and precision, SynthEx is highly comparable to array-based methods and outperforms sequencing-based CNA detection tools. SynthEx robustly identifies CNAs using sequencing data without the additional costs associated with matched normal specimens.
- Breast cancer
- Copy number
- Whole exome
- Whole genome
- The Cancer Genome Atlas
- Synthetic normal
Drivers of tumor growth, progression, and metastasis are often a result of alterations in gene dosage and/or structure due to copy number alterations (CNAs). In breast cancer, common disruptions of specific genomic areas are known to drive oncogenic alterations . Previous research has identified key drivers in a subtype-specific manner that are a direct result of CNAs rather than somatic point mutations. These acquired genomic alterations can foster the activation of oncogenes or inactivation of tumor suppressors in cancer cells . CNA detection has also previously identified therapeutic targets across multiple cancer types [3–6]. The clinical importance of accurately measuring CNAs is critical to understanding the biologic progression of cancer.
Previous efforts to identify CNAs in tumors utilized microarray-based technologies, such as array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping arrays. Currently, next-generation sequencing approaches enable a comprehensive survey of all genomic variations in one sample. Furthermore, whole exome sequencing (WES) is a popular tool for cancer genomics projects as it involves a reduction in analytical complexity and financial burden compared to whole genome sequencing (WGS). With efforts from large sequencing consortia, such as The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project , WES data for thousands of tumors spanning a multitude of cancer types are currently available. Harnessing these technologies to accurately identify CNAs in tumor samples provides a powerful opportunity for additional research using these data.
Significant technical challenges in the detection of CNAs from sequencing platforms currently limit the use of WES data for accurate DNA copy number characterization. Errors in the human reference genome, repetitive sequences, polymorphism, and procedural bias during next-generation sequencing currently complicate copy number calling . For WES data specifically, accurate copy number segmentation is further complicated by non-uniform capture efficiency of exons between two samples. Two generalized approaches to detect CNAs from WES include: reliance on depth of coverage from target regions, thus ignoring a large portion of the genome [9–13]; and utilizing uniformly distributed off-target reads , thus ignoring the signal necessary for sophisticated analyses such as estimation of integer copy number, sample purity, and clonality. To address these issues, we developed a method that leverages information from both off-target and on-target regions.
Previously published algorithms have attempted to address the challenges of detecting CNAs from WES; however, to our current knowledge none has provided a comprehensive solution with the additional ability to reduce the current high cost of requiring matched normals. We developed SynthEx, a tool that caters to the varying protocols of different next-generation sequencing protocols, to detect CNAs. SynthEx uses a “synthetic-normal” strategy to correct for sample-specific bias in target regions due to pre-analytical variation between tumor–normal matched pairs. Therefore, instead of requiring a matched tumor–normal paired sample from each subject, a synthetic normal is used that mimics the technical bias of the tumor to be assayed. Using published CNAs by TCGA from Affymetrix SNP 6.0 as the “gold standard”, we compared the performance of SynthEx against popular WES CNA detection methods [9, 11, 15], using TCGA breast carcinoma as the training set and TCGA head and neck carcinoma as the test set. Here, we provide a novel copy number calling tool utilizing WES data with improved precision and accuracy that does not require matched normal specimens.
Sample-specific bias of read ratios in exonic/target regions due to fold enrichment differences
To explore new methods for assessing copy number alterations (CNAs) using short read DNA sequencing data, we utilized whole exome sequencing data from 989 TCGA breast tumors and matched normal specimens (Additional file 1) .
One significant challenge in calling CNAs from whole exome and targeted sequencing is how to use the information and accurately predict copy number from off-target regions. We first explored the differences in non-overlapping bin sizes in order to have >50× coverage in each bin (Additional file 2: Figure S1). Utilizing 100-kb non-overlapping bins to maximize the coverage in our exploratory analysis, we first examined whether the ratios of matched tumor-to-normal, or the read ratios (RRs), from target regions had a similar distribution in the on-target and off-target regions. If this was true, then one could directly apply existing change point methods developed for SNP array data to non-overlapping bins.
To interrogate the cause of this variation, we first examined the GC content of the predicted copy number neutral bins. We observed a largely uniform distribution with minimal non-uniformity at the tail (GC >0.5). This non-linear pattern and inconsistency indicates patterns that may be due to other non-GC factors. Next, we performed single variable regression analysis of the difference in matched tumor–normal for 16 quality metrics from Picard to identify the variance of the RD as a function of these different metrics (Additional file 2: Figure S2; Additional file 3: Table S2). The coefficients of determination varied from 0.001 (GC dropout) to 0.31 (fold enrichment) (Additional file 2: Figure S3a). Interestingly, fold enrichment was also highly correlated with roughly half of the other Picard metrics (Additional file 2: Figure S3b). Here, fold enrichment is defined as the amount of fold change in which the target region is amplified above genomic background. As fold enrichment during whole exome capture differs between the tumor and matched normal, the distribution of RD in the target bins shifted with respect to their adjacent off-target bins (Fig. 1e).
A second important variable in altering the RD was the differences in library size. When the library sizes of the tumor and matched normal differed significantly, a greater standard deviation was observed (Fig. 1f). Taken together, library size and fold enrichment are two significant factors contributing to the technical bias introduced when comparing tumor to matched normal for quantifiable copy number calling.
Creating a synthetic normal library
In order to test for differences between subject matched and SynthEx Synthetic, we assume RR to be a piecewise constant function of genomic location and measure the magnitude of variation with the mean square successive difference (MSSD) to represent the amount of technical bias. The mean MSSD for all 989 TCGA breast cancer samples is lowered from 0.09 to 0.02 when using a synthetic normal versus using the matched normal sample (Fig. 3b; one-sided Wilcoxon test, p value <2.2e-16). Specifically, 90% of the tumor samples (n = 896) have an improved MSSD value. Furthermore, there’s a striking difference and reduction of noise in the RR plots of two tumors analyzed using a matched normal (Fig. 3c, e) versus using a synthetic normal (Fig. 3d, f).
Varying bin sizes
To assess the robustness of SynthEx Synthetic to bin sizes at varying library sizes (8–30 million reads), we evaluated the performance of our method at 10-, 20-, 50-, and 100-kb non-overlapping bins. We first calculated the percentage of tumors which had at least 20 reads in 90% of the bins (Additional file 2: Figure S1). At 10-kb resolution, 49% of samples have at least 20 reads in ≥90% quantified bins. At 20-kb resolution, 78% of samples have sufficient coverage in 90% quantified bins. At 50 kb, the coverage plateaus with 93% of samples having adequate coverage. Furthermore, the MSSD at each overlapping bin size significantly decreases with increasing bin size (Additional file 2: Figure S4a; ANOVA p value <2e-16). This suggests that 10- and 20-kb bin sizes may not adequately span the genomic space to accurately call CNAs.
We next tested our original assumption that 100-kb bin sizes, which provided the highest coverage of the genome with 50× coverage per bin, was an improvement over 10-, 20-, or 50-kb bins. We calculated Jaccard Index (JI), sensitivity, and specificity relative to Array SNP CNA segments as statistical evaluations of the precision and accuracy of our tool (Additional file 2: Figure S4b–d). ANOVAs demonstrate no significant difference for all three statistical measures across the various bin sizes, although there is a trend of a slight trade-off of sensitivity and specificity when comparing 10 to 20 kb and 50 to 100 kb (ANOVA p value: JI = 0.63; sensitivity = 0.96; specificity = 0.871).
Alternative approaches using the synthetic normal strategy
We investigated utilizing the K nearest neighbor (KNN) strategy as an alternative approach to generating a new synthetic normal without using fold enrichment information. Given a tumor sample, we scan through all of the available normal samples, calculate the MSSD for each normal, and select “K” normals with the smallest variance MSSD value. SynthEx then generates the new synthetic normal by taking the median across the K selected normals. This generated synthetic normal is then used with the tumor sample for copy number determination. We call this the K nearest neighbor (KNN) strategy. Compared to using SynthEx Synthetic with the large library of synthetic normals, this approach is more appropriate for studies with few normal samples or for a facility where the protocol is constantly changing.
We again explored whether 100 kb was the appropriate bin size. Using 10-, 20-, 50-, and 100-kb non-overlapping windows with K = 5, we tested the KNN method compared to the synthetic normal strategy, calculating JI, sensitivity, and specificity compared to Array SNP CNA as the gold standard (Fig. 4b–d). There is a significant improvement of the JI with increasing bin size (ANOVA of KNN bins p value = 0.021, F = 3.272) as well as a slight trade-off of bin size for sensitivity (ANOVA of KNN bins p value = 0.023) but not specificity (ANOVA of KNN bins p value = 0.855).
Concordant copy number calling with SynthEx
To evaluate the performance of our synthetic normal strategy relative to previously published methods, we compared a subset of TCGA breast tumor CNAs assayed by three platforms: Affy SNP 6.0 (SNP), whole exome sequencing (WES), and whole genome sequencing (WGS) platforms (“BRCA”, n = 92; Additional file 1: Table S1) . BRCA WGS SynthEx CNA landscape plots more closely resemble SNP CNA landscape plots than plots created using the TCGA WGS CNAs from tumor–normal matched pairs (Additional file 2: Figure S5). Furthermore, less noise is observed in the WGS CNA landscape plot from SynthEx compared to the TCGA WGS CNAs landscape plot (Additional file 2: Figure S5b,c).
Comparison of somatic copy number detection tools from whole exome sequencing data
Java, Perl, R
Matched normal required
Non-overlapping windows in exons
Non-overlapping windows of genome
Non-overlapping windows in exons
YES with variant calling
Assessing precision and accuracy of segments of SynthEx
The median sensitivity of the WES CNA detection tools compared to SNP-based CNAs demonstrates a modest improvement using SynthEx KNN (0.88), SynthEx Synthetic (0.84), and ADTEx (0.77; one sided t-test p = 0.40) but a significant improvement compared to Control-FREEC (0.69; p = 2.5e-4) and VarScan2 (0.65; p = 2.4e-7) (Fig. 7b; overall ANOVA p = 0.00029). The median specificity follows a similar pattern, with SynthEx KNN and SynthEx Synthetic outperforming the other callers (Fig. 7c; SynthEX KNN, 0.91; SynthEx Synthetic, 0.90; VarScan2, 0.80; Control-FREEC, 0.80; ADTEx, 0.79; one-sided t-test p < 2.5e-10; ANOVA p = 0.0055). In addition, SynthEx Synthetic continued to outperform the other WES detection tools in terms of median sensitivity and specificity when the comparison was subdivided into the intrinsic breast cancer molecular subtypes (Additional file 2: Figures S7 and S8). Finally, for all bin sizes, both the KNN and Synthetic strategies outperform previously published WES detection tools ADTEx, VarSacn2, and Control-FREEC (Additional file 2: Figure S9).
To further assess the robustness of SynthEx, we compared the WES tools and SNP arrays using the TCGA WGS CNAs as the gold standard (Additional file 5: Table S4). For each measurement of precision or accuracy, SNP and SynthEx Synthetic were not significantly different from one another (all one-sided t-tests SNP versus SynthEx >0.94). For the median JI, SNP (0.61), Synthex KNN (0.57), and SynthEx Synthetic (0.47) outperform the other WES copy number tools (Figure 7d; Control-FREEC, 0.35; ADTEx, 0.34; VarScan2, 0.33; ANOVA p < 2e-16). SynthEx KNN (0.77), SynthEx Synthetic (0.71), and SNP (0.76) outperform all other methods in terms of median sensitivity (Fig. 7e; ADTEx, 0.66; Control-FREEC, 0.58; VarScan2, 0.58; ANOVA p = 5.4e-9). Finally, all CNA detection tools have extremely high median specificity compared to WGS CNAs, with SynthEx and SNP significantly different to the other methods (Fig. 7f; SNP, 0.92; SynthEx KNN, 0.88; SynthEx Synthetic, 0.86; Control-FREEC, 0.82; VarScan2, 0.80; ADTEx, 0.79; ANOVA p = 1.5e-8).
Assuming that the normals collected in TCGA breast dataset were diploid, we tested the false positive rate of the SynthEx Synthetic caller. SynthEx Synthetic at 100-kB bin size called a median of 0.0083 bins in the human genome as altered (0.0080–0.02 bins).
Validation of SynthEx in TCGA head and neck squamous cancers
To validate the findings seen for the BRCA dataset, we repeated the above analyses using a subset of TCGA head and neck squamous cellular carcinomas with both SNP and WES platforms (“HNSC”; n = 100; Additional file 6: Table S5). SynthEx HNSC CNAs most closely match the SNP copy number landscape plots compared to plots generated from VarScan2, ADTEx, and Control-FREEC (Additional file 2: Figure S10). Previously published highly frequent copy number gains at 3q, 5p, and 8q and copy number losses at 3p and 8p were observed in the HNSC copy number landscape plots. Discrete gene-level copy number calls using SynthEx shared a 97% overlap with SNP-based gene level copy number calls within HNSC (Additional file 2: Figure S10).
Examining the variation in bin size for HNSC, we next compared the KNN and synthetic normal strategies. No significant differences were observed for JI, sensitivity, or specificity at varying bin sizes or with the different strategies (Additional file 2: Figure S11a-c).
Examining the same statistical metrics using SNP arrays as the gold-standard, SynthEx’s performance was competitive with other WES CNA tools (Additional file 7: Table S6) that require matched normals. The median JI was higher in SynthEx KNN (0.71) and SynthEx Synthetic (0.67) compared to the other WES CNA detection methods (Additional file 2: Figure S11d; ANOVA p < 2e-16; one-sided t-test versus VarScan2 p = 4e-14). Although the median sensitivity of VarScan2 (0.94) and ADTEx (0.97) slightly out-performed SynthEx KNN (0.93) and Synthetic (0.93) in the HSNC cohort, all three values are extremely high and not statistically different (Additional file 2: Figure S11e; one-sided t-tests: SynthEx Synthetic versus VarScan2 p = 0.99; SynthEx Synthetic versus ADTEx p = 0.99; SynthEx Synthetic versus ControlFREEC p = 6.8e-16). In addition, SynthEx KNN (0.94) and Synthetic (0.95) outperformed the other WES copy number tools in terms of specificity (Additional file 2: Figure S11f; ANOVA p = 6.6e-11; one-sided t-tests, SynthEx versus VarScan2 p = 1.1e-15, SynthEx versus ADTEx p < 2.2e-16, SynthEx versus ControlFREEC p < 2.2e-16). Cumulatively, SynthEx outperforms the other WES CNA detection tools in a reproducible manner.
We present SynthEx, a novel tool that detects CNAs from both whole genome and whole exome sequencing (WES) data by comparison to a synthetic normal. We strongly emphasize the differences in exon capture patterns observed both across and within protocols, which must be considered when utilizing sequencing data for CNA calling. We demonstrate that SynthEx outperforms ADTEx, Control-FREEC, and VarScan2 CNA detection tools in both accuracy and precision.
Our experience suggests that technical variation in WES goes beyond differences in experimental protocols. Utilizing read ratios (RRs) to call copy number alterations has an underlying assumption that generation of the on-target and off-target regions have non-significant variation in the tumor and matched normal. Here, we demonstrate that accounting for this technical noise is critical to accurately determine CNAs from next-generation sequencing technologies. SynthEx provides a robust method to handle technical variation and a collection of heterogeneous normal samples. To the best of our knowledge, SynthEx is the first tool that utilizes a matching synthetic normal based on the consistency of target sequencing profiles to detect sequence-based CNAs.
Many advantages for cancer researchers may exist when utilizing SynthEx over other WES CNA detection methods. The robust synthetic normal strategy does not require a matching normal sample for each tumor sample, thereby potentially reducing sequencing costs by half. Additionally, SynthEx uses both on-target and off-target reads and is thus able to accurately determine copy number across the entire genome. Finally, the use of a synthetic normal with similar quality metrics as the tumor being interrogated leads to superior performance compared to using the matched normal for both WES and WGS copy number data.
SynthEx requires some normals to be sequenced with the same protocol and/or generated by the same sequencing facility as the tumors to which they are compared. If a large pool of samples is available (i.e., in large consortia like TCGA), then the pooled synthetic normal strategy can be employed. For smaller datasets, the KNN strategy can be used. Given a tumor sample, SynthEx will select the best normals that minimize the technical variability of a pair. The performance of SynthEx is not guaranteed if using normals generated by different protocols.
In this post-data collection era of TCGA project, we foresee that many studies will integrate multiple TCGA DNA sequencing samples that are processed by different protocols. Additionally, we foresee that large consortia will encounter similar issues with changes in protocols over time. Thus, it will be necessary to closely examine technical artifacts when performing any quantitative analysis, especially in the context of copy number detection. Recognizing that CNAs are essential steps in tumorigenesis and metastasis in many tumor types, it is critical to robustly and accurately determine CNAs from sequencing data. SynthEx offers a unique solution for analysis of heterogeneous samples from large genomics projects in this regard.
Due to the inherently heterogeneous, interrupted coverage of the genome by targeted/whole exome sequencing, sequencing reads are not evenly distributed across the genome. To utilize information from off-target regions, SynthEx uses a generous fixed bin size (10–100 kb) to make sure each bin has adequate coverage (for samples with 8–30 million reads). Lower resolutions could provide CNAs within a single gene, though there is an increasing amount of noise. Even at a resolution of 10 kb, SynthEx outperforms alternative methods compared with SNP array-based calls at both the base-pair and discrete gene level.
A significant limitation of SynthEx is the inability to identify focal changes or aberrations that span only several hundred base pairs. This could be alleviated by introducing adaptive bin sizes. Several algorithms have been developed to accommodate the non-uniformity of read distribution. For example, Zhao et al.  proposed a “restriction-imposed” flexible binning algorithm, which generated bin sizes locally to ensure even variance as well as adequate number of reads per window. A similar algorithm has been applied in Ginkgo , a recent copy number calling method for single-cell sequencing data. Extending our framework to generate adaptive bin sizes and assessing the potential benefits is a promising avenue for future research.
Compared to conventional copy number analysis, which usually estimates the total copy number for a given genomic window, allele-specific copy number analysis (ASCN) is becoming increasingly popular due to its promise in clonality analysis [23–25]. ASCN methods require read counts and allele frequency at each single nucleotide as input data to infer high-resolution allele-specific copy number and accurate tumor purity/ploidy. It is worthwhile to investigate whether the synthetic normal strategy can enhance the power of ASCN methods by reducing unwanted variation at the single nucleotide level. Combining SynthEx with ASCN procedures is likely to be another fruitful future direction.
Breast cancer tumor datasets
For these comparative studies, two human datasets were used: the training dataset contains breast carcinoma data collected by TCGA and available via TCGA data portal (BRCA, n = 92) and the validation dataset contains head and neck squamous cell carcinomas collected by TCGA (HNSC, n = 100). The synthetic normal dataset is comprised of 989 matching normal WES samples from a larger available TCGA BRCA tumor cohort. Detailed biospecimen collection and sample processing information, including sample inclusion criteria, sample processing, and clinical data quality assessment of biomarkers, have been previously described [1, 26]. Demographic and clinical information is available (Additional file 1: Table S1).
For both BRCA and HNSC tumor samples, SNP and DNA WES data were collected from TCGA data portal. In addition, DNA WGS data were collected from a subset of matched tumor–normal BRCA samples . For SNP data, the publically available level 3 circular binary-segmented copy number data were downloaded from TCGA data portal. For WES, burrows-wheeler aligner (BWA) aligned BAM files were acquired from TCGA and realigned using an assembly-based re-aligner (ABRA) with the default parameters [27, 28].The genotype-calling pipeline was built using Freebayes . For WGS, BWA alignments of paired 100-nucleotide reads were acquired from TCGA and processed as previously described [16, 17].
Calculating variability and quality assessment of sequence experiments
Using the ABRA re-aligned BAM files, we calculated read ratios (RR) in the tumor and paired normal sample for each 100-kb non-overlapping bin. Bins are classified as target bins if the bin overlaps with any selectively amplified targets. Bins that do not overlap any selective amplified targets are labeled as off-target bins. Furthermore, bins are also grouped into adjacent bins. Then, each pair of adjacent bins is divided into three categories: two-adjacent target bins, two adjacent off-target bins, or a target bin adjacent with an off-target bin. The variability is assessed by ratio difference (RD), calculated as the difference of the RR between the two bins that comprise the adjacency bins. For each sample, the distribution of RD is plotted and mean and variance are calculated.
Using Picard (http://broadinstitute.github.io/picard/), we collected various sequence-based metrics, including fragment length, sequence content, alignment, capture bias and efficiency, coverage, variant call metrics, and fold enrichment. Fold enrichment is defined as the amount of fold change in which the baited region is amplified above genomic background (http://broadinstitute.github.io/picard/). We performed regression analysis using the lm function in R v.3.3.0 on each collected metric relative to the mean of RD to determine any association between the RRs and the various quality metrics. In addition, the median minor allele frequency (MAF) is calculated for each bin. Bins with a median MAF greater than 0.45 are candidate copy neutral events. A Gaussian mixture model for RR and a Bayesian Information Criteria (BIC) are used to determine the copy number state and identify diploid bins. We assign the mixture component with the smallest mean RR as diploid. The RRs in all bins are adjusted so that the diploid regions have expected RR equal to 1. To assess the quality of the genotype calling method, we examined the exon regions covered by WES and SNP array technologies.
Copy number calculation from synthetic normal and purity estimation
Using the BRCA WES normal samples, we created synthetic normal WES profiles that cover a spectrum of fold enrichment levels and library size levels. For each library size and fold enrichment, we averaged the normal samples that fall into that given bin. For a given tumor sample, we first analyzed the fold enrichment and library size, then searched for a matching synthetic normal. To account for samples with aneuploidy, we identified the diploid genome within the tumor sample by gauging information from allele frequencies of heterozygous sites. We used the circular binary segmentation (CBS) algorithm to identify significant change-points across RR bins and identify segment-level CNAs .
To accurately estimate purity, we refined a previously published WGS computational framework, SomatiCA . We implemented SomatiCA’s fully specified Bayesian normal mixture model to assign each segment an integer copy number based on posterior probabilities. We further utilized several heuristic-based filters to assist the assignment of integer copy numbers which threshold the minimum number of segments in each integer copy level (gains >.25; losses <-.32 in log2 transformed ratios) and identify the minimum distance in MAF between two copy number levels.
Selection and processing of algorithms to detect somatic copy-number alterations
We compared SynthEx against published algorithms that detect CNAs from cancer genome sequence information. Using a comparative-based literature search for top scoring CNA detection tools resulted in three algorithms: ADTEx , ControlFREEC , and Varscan2 . Table 1 highlights the main features of the selected algorithms and our new tool. The dominant strategy to detect CNAs from WES data is to identify change points in the RR counts or depth of coverage ratios between a tumor and its paired normal sample at local genomic regions. ControlFREEC and VarScan2 use non-overlapping binning windows in exons to infer raw copy numbers, whereas ADTEx uses exon regions. Furthermore, ControlFREEC performs GC content normalization and mappability bias correction when inferring copy numbers. Segmentation is performed following the initial copy number identification to identify regions of the genome with shared copy number values. ADTEx and VarScan2 use CBS whereas ControlFREEC uses a lasso-based algorithm to delineate segments of similar copy number.
We applied ADTEx v.1.0.4 with default settings. We applied Control-FREEC v.7.2 with the following configuration: coefficientOfVariation = 0.05, breakPointThreshold = 0.8, window = 50000, intercept = 0, contaminationAdjustment = TRUE. VarScan2 v2.2.4 was run with mpileup default parameters: -q 1 -f ref.fa normal.bam tumor.bam | java -jar VarScan.jar copynumber varScan --mpileup 1; java -jar VarScan.jar copyCaller varScan.copynumber --output-file varScan.copynumber.called
[--output-homdel-file varScan.copynumber.called.homdel] such that the output is in log2 transformed space and comparable to SNP Array.
To evaluate the ability of SynthEx to detect CNAs (i.e., gain or loss of genomic DNA), we compared WES and WGS SynthEx segment-level and gene-level copy number value against CNAs produced from genome-wide SNP arrays and against WES copy number detection tools, including ADTEx, ControlFREEC, and VarScan2. Discrete gene-level copy number calls are created using modification from SWITCHplus . Specifically, we assigned 1 to all significant copy number gained segments identified through CBS and −1 to all significant segments of copy number loss identified through CBS; all other segments were labeled 0. Using the copyNumberHeatmap and createCNGeneHeatmap function from SWITCHplus we created copy number gene matrices for each copy number detection tool and each dataset.
Multiple statistical tests were used to assess the accuracy and precision of CNAs identified using SynthEx against other WES, WGS, and SNP-based copy number detection algorithms. Gene-level Wilcoxon tests were performed for each gene in the discrete copy number gene matrix (from WES data) against the matching gene’s discrete copy number value from the SNP (or WGS) gene matrix. Genes whose discrete call differed significantly against segments from SNP (or WGS)-based copy number profiling tools were identified as having a Wilcoxon false discovery rate p-value less than 0.05. Using the plotting capabilities from SWITCHplus, significantly different genes were highlighted by color on the copy number frequency landscape plot according to direction of the alteration (i.e., red for copy number gain and green for copy number loss).
Jaccard Index (JI), sensitivity, and specificity values are calculated (per sample) using segment-level CNAs from WES-based tools and SNP (or WGS) CNAs as the ground truth value, as previously described . The JI calculates the amount of concordance between the genomic location of a segment’s ground truth (from SNP or WGS). Specifically, it uses set theory to represent the ratio of the intersection of two sets of genome-wide CNAs to the union of two sets of genome-wide CNAs. Sensitivity measures the length of overlapping genomic regions between a tool’s CNAs and the ground truth’s CNAs divided by the length of the ground truth’s CNAs. Specificity measures the length of non-overlapping genomic regions between the ground truth’s CNAs and the tool’s CNAs divided by the length of CNAs not called by the ground truth. Each resulting JI, sensitivity, and specificity per sample value is plotted onto a box plot and separated per copy number profiling tool. For all cohort-wide box plots, one-sided paired t-tests comparing the two highest means (excluding SynthEx KNN) are reported to identify whether SynthEx Synthetic Normals significantly improved the statistical measurement. ANOVA p values are additionally calculated and reported. For subtype-specific box plots, the ANOVA p value is reported to identify whether the means differed significantly among the various tools. All statistics and graphs were generated using R v.3.3.0.
This study was supported by funds from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Breast SPORE program grant P50-CA58223-09A1 (CMP), NCI RO1-CA148761 (CMP), the Breast Cancer Research Foundation (CMP), and NCI F30-CA200345-01 (MBS). MC was supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) grants R01 CA082659 and P01 CA142538 (PI: Danyu Lin). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
Availability of data and materials
SynthEx is available as an R package at GitHub (https://github.com/ChenMengjie/SynthEx) under the MIT license. Source code has been placed into a DOI-assigning repository (https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.376317).
GOS, MC, and CMP conceived and designed the study. GOS, LEM, MBS, and MC performed analyses. GOS, MBS, and MC wrote the manuscript. CMP funded the study. All authors have reviewed and approved the final manuscript.
CMP is an equity stock holder and Board of Director Member of BioClassifier LLC. CMP and JSP are also listed as inventors on a patent application on the PAM50 assay. GOS is a stock holder of Blueprint Medicines Corporation.
The results published here are based upon open-source data generated by The Cancer Genome Atlas, managed by the NCI and NHGRI. All sequencing data were downloaded from TCGA with controlled access permissions and are de-identified. Information about TCGA can be found at http://cancergenome.nih.gov.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
- TCGA. Comprehensive molecular portraits of human breast tumours. Nature. 2012;490:61–70.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Beroukhim R, Getz G, Nghiemphu L, et al. Assessing the significance of chromosomal aberrations in cancer: methodology and application to glioma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:20007–12.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Sun W, Wright FA, Tang Z, et al. Integrated study of copy number states and genotype calls using high-density SNP arrays. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:5365–77.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Van Loo P, Nordgard SH, Lingjærde OC, et al. Allele-specific copy number analysis of tumors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:16910–5.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Carter SL, Cibulskis K, Helman E, et al. Absolute quantification of somatic DNA alterations in human cancer. Nat Biotechnol. 2012;30:413–21.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Yau C, Mouradov D, Jorissen RN, et al. A statistical approach for detecting genomic aberrations in heterogeneous tumor samples from single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping data. Genome Biol. 2010;11:1.Google Scholar
- Weinstein JN, Collisson EA, Mills GB, et al. The cancer genome atlas pan-cancer analysis project. Nat Genet. 2013;45:1113–20.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Teo SM, Pawitan Y, Ku CS, et al. Statistical challenges associated with detecting copy number variations with next-generation sequencing. Bioinformatics. 2012;28:2711–8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Amarasinghe KC, Li J, Hunter SM, et al. Inferring copy number and genotype in tumour exome data. BMC Genomics. 2014;15:732.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Alkodsi A, Louhimo R, Hautaniemi S. Comparative analysis of methods for identifying somatic copy number alterations from deep sequencing data. Brief Bioinform. 2015;16:242–54.Google Scholar
- Boeva V, Popova T, Bleakley K, et al. Control-FREEC: a tool for assessing copy number and allelic content using next-generation sequencing data. Bioinformatics. 2012;28:423–5.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sathirapongsasuti JF, Lee H, Horst BAJ, et al. Exome sequencing-based copy-number variation and loss of heterozygosity detection: ExomeCNV. Bioinformatics. 2011;27:2648–54.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Jiang Y, Oldridge DA, Diskin SJ, Zhang NR. CODEX: a normalization and copy number variation detection method for whole exome sequencing. Nucleic Acids Res. 2015;43, e39.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Kuilman T, Velds A, Kemper K, et al. CopywriteR: DNA copy number detection from off-target sequence data. Genome Biol. 2015;16:49.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Koboldt DC, Zhang Q, Larson DE, et al. VarScan 2: somatic mutation and copy number alteration discovery in cancer by exome sequencing. Genome Res. 2012;22:568–76.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Ciriello G, Gatza ML, Beck AH, et al. Comprehensive molecular portraits of invasive lobular breast cancer. Cell. 2015;163:506–19.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Wilkerson MD, Cabanski CR, Sun W, et al. Integrated RNA and DNA sequencing improves mutation detection in low purity tumors. Nucleic Acids Res. 2014;42, e107.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Futreal PA, Coin L, Marshall M, et al. A census of human cancer genes. Nat Rev Cancer. 2004;4:177–83.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Silva GO, He X, Parker JS, et al. Cross-species DNA copy number analyses identifies multiple 1q21-q23 subtype-specific driver genes for breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2015;152:347–56.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Gatza ML, Silva GO, Parker JS, et al. An integrated genomics approach identifies drivers of proliferation in luminal-subtype human breast cancer. Nat Genet. 2014;46:1051–9.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Zhao X, Wang A, Walter V, et al. Combined targeted DNA sequencing in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) using UNCseq and NGScopy, and RNA sequencing using UNCqeR for the detection of genetic aberrations in NSCLC. PLoS One. 2015;10, e0129280.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Garvin T, Aboukhalil R, Kendall J, et al. Interactive analysis and assessment of single-cell copy-number variations. Nat Methods. 2015;12:1058–60.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Chen H, Bell JM, Zavala NA, et al. Allele-specific copy number profiling by next-generation DNA sequencing. Nucleic Acids Res. 2014;43:e23.Google Scholar
- Shen R, Seshan VE. FACETS: allele-specific copy number and clonal heterogeneity analysis tool for high-throughput DNA sequencing. Nucleic Acids Res. 2016;44:e131.Google Scholar
- Mayrhofer M, DiLorenzo S, Isaksson A. Patchwork: allele-specific copy number analysis of whole-genome sequenced tumor tissue. Genome Biol. 2013;14:1.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Others CGAN. Comprehensive genomic characterization of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Nature. 2015;517:576–82.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Li H, Durbin R. Fast and accurate short read alignment with Burrows--Wheeler transform. Bioinformatics. 2009;25:1754–60.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Mose LE, Wilkerson MD, Hayes DN, et al. ABRA: improved coding indel detection via assembly-based realignment. Bioinformatics. 2014;30:2813–5.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Garrison E, Marth G. Haplotype-based variant detection from short-read sequencing. 2012. arXiv Prepr. arXiv1207.3907.Google Scholar
- Olshen AB, Venkatraman ES, Lucito R, Wigler M. Circular binary segmentation for the analysis of array-based DNA copy number data. Biostatistics. 2004;5(4):557–72.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chen M, Gunel M, Zhao H. SomatiCA: Identifying, characterizing and quantifying somatic copy number aberrations from cancer genome sequencing data. PLoS One. 2013;8:e78143.Google Scholar