Temporal model of structural and functional gene shuffling in plants. (a) Schematic representation of the phylogenetic relationships between angiosperm species. Divergence times from a common ancestor are indicated on the branches of the phylogenetic tree (in million years). Sequenced genomes are indicated in red. WGD events are illustrated with red circles on the tree branches. (b) The percentage of total and structural (gene loss) or functional (neo-subfunctionalization) gene shuffling discussed in the article (referred to as data point 'X' in the text) and observed during the last 100 million years of evolution are plotted as dotted red, black and grey logarithmic curves.