Systematic screening of polyphosphate (poly P) levels in yeast mutant cells reveals strong interdependence with primary metabolism
© Freimoser et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2006
Received: 2 August 2006
Accepted: 15 November 2006
Published: 15 November 2006
Inorganic polyphosphate (poly P) occurs universally in all organisms from bacteria to man. It functions, for example, as a phosphate and energy store, and is involved in the activation and regulation of proteins. Despite its ubiquitous occurrence and important functions, it is unclear how poly P is synthesized or how poly P metabolism is regulated in higher eukaryotes. This work describes a systematic analysis of poly P levels in yeast knockout strains mutated in almost every non-essential gene.
After three consecutive screens, 255 genes (almost 4% of the yeast genome) were found to be involved in the maintenance of normal poly P content. Many of these genes encoded proteins functioning in the cytoplasm, the vacuole or in transport and transcription. Besides reduced poly P content, many strains also exhibited reduced total phosphate content, showed altered ATP and glycogen levels and were disturbed in the secretion of acid phosphatase.
Cellular energy and phosphate homeostasis is suggested to result from the equilibrium between poly P, ATP and free phosphate within the cell. Poly P serves as a buffer for both ATP and free phosphate levels and is, therefore, the least essential and consequently most variable component in this network. However, strains with reduced poly P levels are not only affected in their ATP and phosphate content, but also in other components that depend on ATP or free phosphate content, such as glycogen or secreted phosphatase activity.
Inorganic polyphosphate (poly P) is a linear polymer that consists of phosphoanhydride linked phosphate residues and occurs ubiquitously in all organisms and living cells . The functions of poly P range from its role as a phosphate store and buffer [2–4] to the activation of enzymes [5, 6] and regulation of chromatin condensation, gene expression and translation [1, 7, 8]. Poly P is also involved in bacterial pathogenicity [9, 10], survival during stationary phase in bacteria and yeast [9, 11, 12], or the adaptation to alkaline and osmotic stress [13–15]. In the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, poly P regulates development and predation behavior , and in humans blood coagulation is accelerated and fibrinolysis is delayed by poly P . At the cellular level, poly P has been detected in the cytosol, the nucleus, mitochondria, as well as the endoplasmic reticulum [7, 18, 19]. Poly P is particularly prominent in the acidocalcisomes of trypanosomatids , and in Saccharomyces cerevisiae almost the entire poly P pool resides in the vacuole [21, 22].
Despite its universal occurrence and its broad functions, very little is known about poly P metabolism and its regulation. In S. cerevisiae (and all higher eukaryotes) it is, for example, still not known how poly P is synthesized, despite the fact that more than 20% of this organism's dry weight can be composed of poly P . To gain a broad view of poly P metabolism in yeast and to identify pathways involved in the regulation of poly P levels, we extracted and quantified poly P in the knockout strains of almost all non-essential yeast genes.
Altogether, 4,765 strains from the YKO collection , consisting of knockouts of non-essential yeast genes, were initially screened. Strains that either hypo- or hyper-accumulated poly P were subjected to three consecutive rounds of screening. After the third round, 255 strains from the YKO collection had altered poly P levels in all three experiments (a complete list of all data is available online as Additional data file 1). Almost all of these 255 strains had reduced poly P levels and only occasionally, at specific time-points during growth, poly P hyper-accumulation relative to the wild-type strain was observed.
All cellular compartments are involved in maintenance of poly P levels
Vacuolar proteins are most important in determining poly P levels
All 255 genes were ranked according to their impact on poly P content. The mutant cells most strongly affected in their poly P content were highly enriched for knockouts of genes that encode vacuolar proteins (6 out of the 20 vacuolar proteins among the 10 most strongly affected mutants). Vacuolar function depends on the acidification of the vacuolar lumen, which is mediated by the vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) complex. In this poly P screen, 9 out of the 14 V-ATPase subunits were required for normal poly P content (Vma5 (14), Vma8 (10), Vma10 (13), Vma13 (34), Vph1 (1), Cup5 (5), Tfp3 (15), Ppa1 (20), Vma6 (27); ranks given in parentheses). In addition, regulators (Rav1 (43), Vps34 (30), Fab1 (150) and Vac14 (213)) and assembly factors (Vma22 (16), Vph2 (23)) of the V-ATPase were also discovered as being important for normal poly P levels.
Next to the VPH1 knockout, the VTC4 and VTC1 deletion strains were the second and third most affected mutants, and the knockout of VTC2 also hypo-accumulated poly P (rank 219). Together with Vtc3, these are the four subunits of the vacuolar transporter chaperon (Vtc) complex, which was previously shown to be required for maintenance of poly P levels . Other proteins involved in the hypo-accumulation of poly P are involved in membrane docking and fusion at the Golgi-to-endosome and the endosome-to-vacuole steps (Vps33, ninth most affected mutant), or represent an alternative pathway from the Golgi to the vacuole (effected by the AP-3 complex that consists of Apm3, Apl5, Apl6 and Aps3; ranks 21, 59, 57 and 55, respectively). Vam3, a vacuolar t-SNARE protein that traffics to the vacuole via the AP-3 complex , was also important for maintenance of poly P levels (rank 8).
In other strongly affected strains, genes encoding either of the two phosphofructokinase subunits (PFK1 and PFK2, ranks 28 and 17) or the pyruvate kinase PYK2 (rank 7) were knocked out. In three additional strains, other components of glycolysis were identified (GCR2, GPM3, YOR283W; 63, 201 and 181, respectively).
Poly P profiles of the identified mutant strains
Many strains with altered poly P levels are also affected in their total phosphate content, ATP levels, acid phosphatase activity and glycogen accumulation
Comparison of the 255 non-essential ORFs found to be important for poly P content with the results from published large scale analyses revealed that 56 strains were also affected in glycogen accumulation , but that only 4 strains with reduced poly P levels had previously been found in a screen for altered PHO5 (acid phosphatase (rAPase)) regulation, which serves as an indicator of the activation state of the PHO pathway [26, 27]. To verify the data from the screen, and to test if a poly P phenotype is accompanied by other complex phenotypes, we measured cell density, poly P levels, total phosphate content, ATP concentrations, glycogen levels and rAPase activity in the 30 most affected knockout strains.
Cell density was slightly reduced (to roughly half the OD600) in most strains, but only at the 2 h and 5 h time-points (Figure 3). Poly P content and total phosphate levels were strongly reduced in all 30 non-essential mutants except in the knockout of TFP3 (only slightly reduced poly P and total phosphate levels) and the Δecm14, Δmrp51,Δapm3 and Δsir3 strains had almost normal content of total phosphate (Figure 3). The ATP levels exhibited the highest variability at the 0 h time-point, with a cluster of knockouts having an increased content (knockouts of ERG6, VTC4, VTC1, PYK2, VPH1, CUP5 and ECM14). Strongly reduced ATP levels were only measured in the knockouts of the dubious open reading frame (ORF) YPR099c and the uncharacterized ORF YOL019w (Figure 3). Almost all of the 30 knockouts hyper-accumulated glycogen, either at the 2 h or the 0 h and 24 h time-points. An exception was again the mutation in the dubious ORF YPR099c, which had undetectable glycogen levels at the 0 h and 2 h time-points (which could be explained by the effect on MRPL51, which is encoded on the opposite strand). Most of the 30 knockout mutants also exhibited strongly increased rAPase activity at the 0 h and 24 h time-points. Exceptions were only the knockouts of ECM14, VTC4, VTC1 and VAM3 (Figure 3).
Previous to the screen described here, only very few yeast mutant cells had been analyzed with respect to their poly P content and, to our knowledge, this is the first time that a specific metabolite, that is, poly P, was isolated and quantified in an almost complete mutant cell collection. After three consecutive screens, 255 knockout mutant strains with altered poly P levels were identified. The genes affected in these mutant cells encode proteins from all intracellular compartments and components functioning in many processes of primary metabolism. This broad analysis thus defined novel biological functions for about 250 yeast genes and allowed, for the first time, a global view of the pathways and processes affecting poly P metabolism in yeast. But not only were many genes required for the maintenance of a normal poly P content, strains that hypo- or hyper-accumulated poly P had often a reduced total phosphate content, altered ATP and glycogen levels and an up-regulated rAPase secretion. From this analysis we conclude that poly P content is an extremely sensitive parameter that is highly intertwined with primary metabolism.
However, the number of knockout mutant cells with reduced poly P levels was probably even underestimated: Several of the few mutants previously identified to hypo-accumulate poly P were not found in this screen. For example, the knockouts of VMA4, VTC3, ARG82 or KCS1 were not discovered, as well as all knockouts of members of the PHO pathway (PHO3, PHO4 or, for example, PHO84), which have been shown to convey hypo-accumulation of poly P [3, 26, 28]. This is an indication of the stringency of the screening conditions and selection criteria and suggests that the true number of non-essential genes involved in poly P metabolism is even higher than the 255 genes reported here. The reliability of the high-throughput screening procedure was also confirmed by the fact that all 30 strains from the YKO collection that were individually tested indeed showed strongly reduced poly P levels.
Although poly P has been observed in and functions in different organelles [7, 18, 19, 29], 90% to 99% of all poly P is localized in the vacuole [1, 21, 22]. Consequently, we measure almost exclusively vacuolar poly P and the proteins from other organelles that were found in this screen must affect vacuolar poly P levels. Poly P storage is thus a central function of the yeast vacuole and, thus, mutants affected in vacuolar functions or morphology are likely to be impaired in their capability to store polyP. Important vacuolar functions include the maturation and activation of different proteins and physiological functions in the storage of metabolites and in cell homeostasis [30–32] that all depend on the V-ATPase. This large multimeric, partly membrane-embedded complex is conserved from yeast to man and is also relevant in human diseases such as osteopetrosis and distal renal tubular acidosis [33, 34]. In this screen, nine subunits of the V-ATPase and several of its regulators were identified. In addition, V-ATPase activity is also glucose regulated; in the presence of glucose, the V-ATPase is functional while the absence of glucose causes reversible dissociation of the V0 and V1 subunits and thus V-ATPase is inactivated . This phenomenon could explain the decline of poly P levels as soon as the growth medium is depleted for glucose . However, based on these data it is impossible to conclude whether V-ATPase activity regulates poly P levels directly or indirectly. As poly P levels in a VMA4 knockout strain could be slightly restored by growing the cells in acid buffered growth medium, Ogawa et al.  concluded that V-ATPase itself was not essential for poly P metabolism. Instead, these authors suggested that the Vtc complex (consisting of Vtc1, Vtc2, Vtc3 and Vtc4), which regulates vacuolar membrane fusion, morphology and function [37, 38], is directly involved in the synthesis of poly P in yeast . The fact that mutants affected in various stages of retrograde and forward vesicle trafficking, as well as in autophagy, indicate that an intact secretory pathway is required for normal poly P content and supports the hypothesis that the Vtc complex influences poly P levels indirectly . This secondary effect on poly P metabolism can be caused by: the mislocalization or misregulation of vacuolar proteins that are important for poly P synthesis and storage; or the impairment of poly P synthesis and transport along the secretory pathway. Thus, many pathways could indirectly affect poly P content via their impact on the vacuole or secretory pathway and, thereby, link seemingly unrelated pathways to poly P metabolism. The reduced poly P content in mutants of any one of the four subunits of the AP-3 complex, which mediates an alternative pathway from the Golgi to the vacuole  and is also medically relevant for one type of Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome , is another such case of indirect effects; mutations in proteins that are targeted to the vacuole via the AP-3 complex or that contain a putative di-leucine signal for AP-3 targeting hypo-accumulated poly P (data not shown).
Intervention at any point within this phosphate-energy-network inevitably causes many side effects that require readjustment of the allocation of resources between the different phosphate and energy pools. In this context, 'interventions' could represent genetic changes but also externally induced physiological changes as they occur, for example, during the progression through different growth phases. Both types of changes were found to affect poly P levels strongly, but also other characteristics were altered. Many mutants that failed to accumulate poly P seemed to invest more in the accumulation of storage carbohydrates (glycogen) and could no longer buffer the expression of phosphate regulated genes (as indicated by elevated rAPase activity). In contrast, total phosphate content closely followed poly P levels, but even in this case the correlation coefficient between all relative poly P and all total phosphate values (log2-transformed) was only 0.65. Even ATP levels per se were sometimes significantly altered, but compared to the other characteristics that were measured, these changes were smaller, confirming, at least partly, the general notion that, in viable and growing cells, ATP levels remain constant .
PolyP metabolism and primary metabolism are strongly interdependent: On one hand, poly P levels depend necessarily on the integrity of primary metabolism and reflect the physiological state of a cell. On the other hand, poly P itself influences cell metabolism through its importance for energy and phosphate homeostasis. This first genome-wide analysis of poly P content thus also implies poly P as an indirect link between different cellular pathways such as phosphate, energy and carbohydrate metabolism or transcription and translation activities.
Materials and methods
Strains and culturing conditions
The haploid yeast knock-out strains (YKO , based on the strain BY4741: MAT a his3Δ1 leu2Δ0 met15Δ0 ura3Δ0) were grown in 96-well deep well plates at 30°C in YPD medium (1% w/v yeast extract, 2% w/v peptone, 2% w/v glucose, with optional addition of 200 mg/l G418). For the screen, fresh YPD medium was inoculated with 40 μl of the precultured (3d) stationary cells and cells were harvested after 4 h (first and second round of screen) or after 2 h, 4 h, 8 h and 24 h (third round of screen). Growth and cell number was monitored by measuring the light scattering at 600 nm (OD600) in a BioTek PowerWave™ XS microplate spectrophotometer (BioTEK Instruments Inc., Vermont, USA). For detailed poly P measurements in selected strains, the culture was inoculated at a cell density of 1 OD600/ml (approximately 107 cells/ml), and at each time-point 1 OD600 equivalent of cells was collected for poly P quantification.
Poly P purification and quantification
Poly P extraction, purification and quantification were performed as described previously . In short, cells were pelleted in deep well plates by centrifugation (approximately 640 g, 15 minutes, 4°C), the supernatant was discarded, 50 μl 1 M sulphuric acid were added and the suspension was neutralized with 50 μl 2 M NaOH and 100 μl Tris-malate buffer (1 M, pH 7.5, 6% neutral red solution (0.1% neutral red in 70% ethanol)). Cell fragments were pelleted by centrifugation (approximately 640 g, 15 minutes, 4°C) and 100 μl of the supernatant were removed. Poly P was purified, enzymatically digested and quantified using a colorimetric assay .
Screening procedure and data analysis
For all poly P measurements the poly P raw data were normalized to the cell density (OD600) measured for each corresponding culture. The poly P content was then expressed relative to either the median of all cultures in one 96-well plate (first screen) or the poly P content in the wild-type strain BY4741 (second and third screens). All strains with a relative poly P content 1.5-fold higher or a relative poly P content 0.67-fold lower were selected for the second and the third round of screening. In the third screen, data were collected at four different time points (2 h, 4 h, 8 h, 24 h). Only strains that fulfilled at least one of the following criteria were selected for subsequent data analysis: relative poly P content throughout the 24 h time-course varied more than two-fold; at least one time-point differed more than two-fold from the wild-type poly P content. Strains that did not grow were excluded. In some strains, the affected gene was reintroduced and expressed from a plasmid, which restored poly P levels (data not shown).
The poly P data of all selected strains and all screens and time-points were combined and clustered hierarchically (with the Pearson uncentered or Pearson correlation distance measure, respectively, and complete or average linkage in Genesis ). The selected strains were also ranked according to how strongly poly P levels were affected (calculated as the sum of the squares of the log2-transformed poly P ratios at the four time-points of the third screen).
The genes that were deleted in the strains with altered poly P content were categorized and studied by different computational tools and in comparison with available data sets. All genes were categorized according to the GO terminology by using the annotation given in the go_slim_mapping.tab file available from the Saccharomyces Genome Database . Significantly overrepresented GOSlim terms (compared to their representation in the complete yeast genome) were determined by using Cytoscape and the BiNGO plugin (settings: hypergeometric test statistic, false discovery rate correction for multiple tests, P ≤ 0.05 confidence limit) [46, 47]. All data manipulations were performed in Microsoft Excel and FileMaker.
Measurement of total phosphate, ATP, glycogen and acid phosphatase activity
Detailed measurements of several metabolites and activities were performed in selected strains at various time-points (0 h, 2 h, 5 h, 24 h). Individual cultures for each time-point were inoculated to an OD600 = 1 (approximately 107 cells/ml). At each time point 1OD600 equivalent of cells was harvested and used for subsequent measurements. All data were obtained from duplicate measurements.
For measurement of total phosphate, cells were pelleted, resuspended in 200 μl of 1 MH2SO4 and heated in a boiling water bath for 20 minutes. Released phosphate was quantified with molybdate and malachite green as described . For ATP quantification the same neutralized cell extract as for poly P quantification was prepared, and ATP was quantified by a method adapted from Hyswert et al. . The neutralized sample (20 μl) were added to 80 μl Tris buffer (20 mM, pH8, 2 mM EDTA) and 4 μl phosphoenol pyruvate were added (2.5 mM, pH8, 0.125 M MgSO4, 0.312 M K2SO4). For the quantification of ATP, 5 μl of the sample were added to 45 μl luciferase buffer (10 mM Tris-H2SO4, pH 7.4, 3.5 mM MgSO4). After the addition of 50 μl luciferase solution (Roche ATP Bioluminescence Assay kit CLS II, Roche Diagnostics GmbH, Mannheim, Germany) relative light units emitted were measured in a luminometer (Lumat LB 9507, Berthold Technologies GmBH and Co. KG, Bad Wildbad, Germany).
To quantify glycogen the cell pellet was first frozen and glycogen was extracted as described . The extracted glycogen was then digested by adding 10 U alpha-amylase and 12.6 U amyloglucosidase in a sodium acetate buffer (pH 4.8, 220 mM) at 55°C for 16 h. Released glucose was quantified with the D-Glucose HK kit (Megazyme International Ireland Ltd., Bray, Ireland).
Acid phosphatase activity was assayed according to Huang and O'Shea  in 50 μl cell suspension by adding 200 μl p-nitrophenyl-phosphate (20 mM). After 15 minutes at room temperature, 200 μl of 10% ice-cold trichloracetic acid and 400 μl sodium carbonate solution (2 M) were added and the OD420 was measured. All results were expressed relative to the respective values of the wild-type cells (BY4741).
Additional data files
The following additional data are available with the online version of this paper. Additional data file 1 contains all poly P data of the three screens.
We thank S Eicke, M Stadler, S Ernst, C Neupert and S Clerc for help at different stages of this research. M Aebi is acknowledged for helpful and motivating discussions, SZeeman and his group for providing a spectrophotometer and help with glycogen quantification, and W Gruissem and J Fütterer for making a luminometer available. M Peter and M Sohrmann are given thanks for providing yeast strains. This work was supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation (grant 3100A0-112083/1) and ETH Zurich.
- Kornberg A, Rao NN, Ault-Riché D: Inorganic polyphosphate: a molecule of many functions. Annu Rev Biochem. 1999, 68: 89-125. 10.1146/annurev.biochem.68.1.89.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Neef DW, Kladde MP: Polyphosphate loss promotes SNF/SWI- and Gcn5-dependent mitotic induction of PHO5. Mol Cell Biol. 2003, 23: 3788-3797. 10.1128/MCB.23.11.3788-3797.2003.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ogawa N, DeRisi J, Brown PO: New components of a system for phosphate accumulation and polyphosphate metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed by genomic expression analysis. Mol Biol Cell. 2000, 11: 4309-4321.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Thomas MR, O'Shea EK: An intracellular phosphate buffer filters transient fluctuations in extracellular phosphate levels. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2005, 102: 9565-9570. 10.1073/pnas.0501122102.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kuroda A, Nomura K, Ohtomo R, Kato J, Ikeda T, Takiguchi N, Ohtake H, Kornberg A: Role of inorganic polyphosphate in promoting ribosomal, protein degradation by the Lon protease in E. coli. Science. 2001, 293: 705-708. 10.1126/science.1061315.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wang L, Fraley CD, Faridi J, Kornberg A, Roth RA: Inorganic polyphosphate stimulates mammalian TOR, a kinase involved in the proliferation of mammary cancer cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2003, 100: 11249-11254. 10.1073/pnas.1534805100.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kulaev IS, Vagabov VM, Kulakovskaya TV: The Biochemistry of Inorganic Polyphopshates. 2004, Chichester, West Sussex: John Wiley and Sons, Ltd, 2View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- McInerney P, Mizutani T, Shiba T: Inorganic polyphosphate interacts with ribosomes and promotes translation fidelity in vitro and in vivo. Mol Microbiol. 2006, 60: 438-447. 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2006.05103.x.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kim KS, Rao NN, Fraley CD, Kornberg A: Inorganic polyphosphate is essential for long-term survival and virulence factors in Shigella and Salmonella spp. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2002, 99: 7675-7680. 10.1073/pnas.112210499.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rashid MH, Rumbaugh K, Passador L, Davies DG, Hamood AN, Iglewski BH, Kornberg A: Polyphosphate kinase is essential for biofilm development, quorum sensing, and virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2000, 97: 9636-9641. 10.1073/pnas.170283397.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Crooke E, Akiyama M, Rao NN, Kornberg A: Genetically altered levels of inorganic polyphosphate in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1994, 269: 6290-6295.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sethuraman A, Rao NN, Kornberg A: The endopolyphosphatase gene: essential in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2001, 98: 8542-8547. 10.1073/pnas.151269398.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pick U, Weiss M: Polyphosphate hydrolysis within acidic vacuoles in response to amine-induced alkaline stress in the halotolerant alga Dunaliella salina. Plant Physiol. 1991, 97: 1234-1240.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rohloff P, Montalvetti A, Docampo R: Acidocalcisomes and the contractile vacuole complex are involved in osmoregulation in Trypanosoma cruzi. J Biol Chem. 2004, 279: 52270-52281. 10.1074/jbc.M410372200.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Weiss M, Bental M, Pick U: Hydrolysis of polyphosphates and permeability changes in response to osmotic shocks in cells of the halotolerant alga Dunaliella. Plant Physiol. 1991, 97: 1241-1248.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhang H, Gomez-Garcia MR, Brown MR, Kornberg A: Inorganic polyphosphate in Dictyostelium discoideum : influence on development, sporulation, and predation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2005, 102: 2731-2735. 10.1073/pnas.0500023102.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Smith SA, Mutch NJ, Baskar D, Rohloff P, Docampo R, Morrissey JH: Polyphosphate modulates blood coagulation and fibrinolysis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2006, 103: 903-908. 10.1073/pnas.0507195103.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Beauvoit B, Rigoulet M, Guerin B, Canioni P: Polyphosphates as a source of high energy phosphates in yeast mitochondria: a 31 P NMR study. FEBS Lett. 1989, 252: 17-21. 10.1016/0014-5793(89)80882-8.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Harold FM, Miller A: Intracellular localization of inorganic polyphsophate in Neurospora crassa. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1961, 50: 261-270. 10.1016/0006-3002(61)90324-9.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Docampo R, de Souza W, Miranda K, Rohloff P, Moreno SN: Acidocalcisomes - conserved from bacteria to man. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2005, 3: 251-261. 10.1038/nrmicro1097.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Indge KJ: Polyphosphates of the yeast cell vacuole. J Gen Microbiol. 1968, 51: 447-455.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Urech K, Durr M, Boller T, Wiemken A, Schwencke J: Localization of polyphosphate in vacuoles of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Arch Microbiol. 1978, 116: 275-278. 10.1007/BF00417851.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Winzeler EA, Shoemaker DD, Astromoff A, Liang H, Anderson K, Andre B, Bangham R, Benito R, Boeke JD, Bussey H, et al: Functional characterization of the S. cerevisiae genome by gene deletion and parallel analysis. Science. 1999, 285: 901-906. 10.1126/science.285.5429.901.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Darsow T, Burd CG, Emr SD: Acidic di-leucine motif essential for AP-3-dependent sorting and restriction of the functional specificity of the Vam3p vacuolar t-SNARE. J Cell Biol. 1998, 142: 913-922. 10.1083/jcb.142.4.913.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wilson WA, Wang Z, Roach PJ: Systematic identification of the genes affecting glycogen storage in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae : implication of the vacuole as a determinant of glycogen level. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2002, 1: 232-242. 10.1074/mcp.M100024-MCP200.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Auesukaree C, Tochio H, Shirakawa M, Kaneko Y, Harashima S: Plc1p, Arg82p, and Kcs1p, enzymes involved in inositol pyrophosphate synthesis, are essential for phosphate regulation and polyphosphate accumulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem. 2005, 280: 25127-25133. 10.1074/jbc.M414579200.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Huang S, O'Shea EK: A systematic high-throughput screen of a yeast deletion collection for mutants defective in PHO5 regulation. Genetics. 2005, 169: 1859-1871. 10.1534/genetics.104.038695.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Auesukaree C, Homma T, Tochio H, Shirakawa M, Kaneko Y, Harashima S: Intracellular phosphate serves as a signal for the regulation of the PHO pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem. 2004, 279: 17289-17294. 10.1074/jbc.M312202200.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lichko LP, Kulakovskaya TV, Kulaev IS: Inorganic polyphosphate and exopolyphosphatase in the nuclei of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: dependence on the growth phase and inactivation of the PPX1 and PPN1 genes. Yeast. 2006, 23: 735-740. 10.1002/yea.1391.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kane PM: The where, when, and how of organelle acidification by the yeast vacuolar H +-ATPase. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2006, 70: 177-191. 10.1128/MMBR.70.1.177-191.2006.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Klionsky DJ, Herman PK, Emr SD: The fungal vacuole: composition, function, and biogenesis. Microbiol Rev. 1990, 54: 266-292.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Eide DJ, Clark S, Nair TM, Gehl M, Gribskov M, Guerinot ML, Harper JF: Characterization of the yeast ionome: a genome-wide analysis of nutrient mineral and trace element homeostasis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genome Biol. 2005, 6: R77-10.1186/gb-2005-6-9-r77.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sobacchi C, Frattini A, Orchard P, Porras O, Tezcan I, Andolina M, Babul-Hirji R, Baric I, Canham N, Chitayat D, et al: The mutational spectrum of human malignant autosomal recessive osteopetrosis. Hum Mol Genet. 2001, 10: 1767-1773. 10.1093/hmg/10.17.1767.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Stover EH, Borthwick KJ, Bavalia C, Eady N, Fritz DM, Rungroj N, Giersch AB, Morton CC, Axon PR, Akil I, et al: Novel ATP6V1B1 and ATP6V0A4 mutations in autosomal recessive distal renal tubular acidosis with new evidence for hearing loss. J Med Genet. 2002, 39: 796-803. 10.1136/jmg.39.11.796.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Parra KJ, Kane PM: Reversible association between the V1 and V0 domains of yeast vacuolar H+-ATPase is an unconventional glucose-induced effect. Mol Cell Biol. 1998, 18: 7064-7074.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Werner TP, Amrhein N, Freimoser FM: Novel method for the quantification of inorganic polyphosphate (iPoP) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae shows dependence of iPoP content on the growth phase. Arch Microbiol. 2005, 184: 129-136. 10.1007/s00203-005-0031-2.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Cohen A, Perzov N, Nelson H, Nelson N: A novel family of yeast chaperons involved in the distribution of V-ATPase and other membrane proteins. J Biol Chem. 1999, 274: 26885-26893. 10.1074/jbc.274.38.26885.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Müller O, Neumann H, Bayer MJ, Mayer A: Role of the Vtc proteins in V-ATPase stability and membrane trafficking. J Cell Sci. 2003, 116: 1107-1115. 10.1242/jcs.00328.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Odorizzi G, Cowles CR, Emr SD: The AP-3 complex: a coat of many colours. Trends Cell Biol. 1998, 8: 282-288. 10.1016/S0962-8924(98)01295-1.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Huizing M, Boissy RE, Gahl WA: Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome: vesicle formation from yeast to man. Pigment Cell Res. 2002, 15: 405-419. 10.1034/j.1600-0749.2002.02074.x.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rudra D, Warner JR: What better measure than ribosome synthesis?. Genes Dev. 2004, 18: 2431-2436. 10.1101/gad.1256704.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Warner JR: The economics of ribosome biosynthesis in yeast. Trends Biochem Sci. 1999, 24: 437-440. 10.1016/S0968-0004(99)01460-7.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ditzelmüller G, Wohrer W, Kubicek CP, Rohr M: Nucleotide pools of growing, synchronized and stressed cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Arch Microbiol. 1983, 135: 63-67. 10.1007/BF00419484.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sturn A, Quackenbush J, Trajanoski Z: Genesis: Cluster analysis of microarray data. Bioinformatics. 2002, 18: 207-208. 10.1093/bioinformatics/18.1.207.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Saccharomyces Genome Database. [ftp://genome-ftp.stanford.edu/pub/yeast/data_download/literature_curation/]
- Maere S, Heymans K, Kuiper M: BiNGO: a Cytoscape plugin to assess overrepresentation of Gene Ontology categories in biological networks. Bioinformatics. 2005, 21: 3448-3449. 10.1093/bioinformatics/bti551.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Shannon P, Markiel A, Ozier O, Baliga NS, Wang JT, Ramage D, Amin N, Schwikowski B, Ideker T: Cytoscape: a software environment for integrated models of biomolecular interaction networks. Genome Res. 2003, 13: 2498-2504. 10.1101/gr.1239303.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hyswert DW, Morrison NM: Studies on ATP, ADP, and AMP concentrations in yeast and beer. J Am Soc Brew Chem. 1977, 35: 160-167.Google Scholar
- Wang Z, Wilson WA, Fujino MA, Roach PJ: Antagonistic controls of autophagy and glycogen accumulation by Snf1p, the yeast homolog of AMP-activated protein kinase, and the cyclin-dependent kinase Pho85p. Mol Cell Biol. 2001, 21: 5742-5752. 10.1128/MCB.21.17.5742-5752.2001.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.