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Table 2 Features of enhancer-promoter contacts (EPC)

From: Mechanisms of enhancer action: the known and the unknown

EPC features Select references
EPC is pervasive genome-wide [170,171,172,173,174]
Two types of EPC
 Facultative (de novo): formed on demand for transcription [128, 129, 144, 175, 176]
 Preformed: keeps gene loci poised for transcription [170, 177,178,179,180]
EPC correlates with active transcription [128, 181,182,183]
EPC is required for transcription or “forced” EPC results in transcription [184,185,186,187]
EPC is required for PIC recruitment, transcription elongation [91, 188, 189]
Promoters in contact with active enhancers exhibit higher transcription rates [170]
Sustained transcription is not required for the maintenance of EPC [170, 190]
Proteins of various structural and functional categories can act as looping factors promoting EPC: tissue-specific TFs, Mediator complex, the Cohesin complex, CTCF; bridging factors LDB1, GATA3, OCA-B coactivator; chromatin remodelers SWI/SNF and NuRD; SRC-3; YY-1 [95, 128, 176, 187, 191,192,193,194,195,196,197,198,199,200]