Comparison of compression rates of de Bruijn graphs of a genomes of model organisms and b bacterial pan-genomes, using unitigs, simplitigs, assemblies, and BOSS. The first three representations (text-based) were encoded as cleaned FASTA files, and the BOSS file was obtained as a tar file of all Themisto index files. The compression capabilities of individual representations were compared in terms of the number of bits per distinct k-mer for k = 18 (top part) and k = 31 (bottom part). The results are shown on a logarithmic scale, jointly for uncompressed files (light colors) and files compressed using xz (full colors), together with the lower bounds (8 and 2 bits per k-mer for uncompressed and compressed textual representations, respectively). Full results are available in Additional file 4: Table S15.