Circos plots of GLOBETROTTER (GT) results. The outer circle represents target groups for which GT inference was performed (wide segments) and additional surrogate populations, which were used to describe admixture in target populations (narrow segments). Geographic affiliation of target groups is colour-coded: blue—Europe (except populations from Volga-Ural region—Komis, Udmurts, Maris, Tatars, Chuvashes, Bashkirs); green—Volga-Ural region; and magenta—Western Siberia. Inner bar plots depict genetic composition of inferred sources of admixture in each of the target groups. A pair of sources is shown for a simple one-way admixture event between two populations, and an additional pair of sources for the less strongly signaled event is shown for a one-date multi-way admixture between more than two sources (marked as MW in the outer circle). In a simple one-date event, a pair of sources contributes 100% of the DNA of the target population. Surrogate populations in the inner bar plots are shaded according to the colour scheme given in the outer ring, and those contributing < 3% to mixing sources are coloured in grey. Point estimates and confidence intervals for the date of inferred admixture event are shown next to the cluster label. The details of the GT source groups are given in Additional file 3: Figure S5 and Additional file 11: Table S10. a Results of ‘full’ analysis, where each cluster was allowed to copy from every other cluster. b Results of ‘regional’ analysis, where no copying between samples from the same geographical region was allowed. For example, in the ‘full’ analysis of the ‘Europe 1’ cluster, a simple one-date admixture event was detected. The first source population contributes 85% of the total DNA, including 76% from the ‘Europe 2’ surrogate; the second source contributes 15% and is dominated by the ‘Finnic’ cluster. The admixture took place around 1211 CE (95% CI: 1213–1412 CE). Abbreviations: C-Central; Cauc-Caucasus; E-East; N-North; S-South; Sib-Siberia; W-West.