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Table 1 Summary of the different murine crosses performed to identify rescue of the Adar1 and Adar2 murine phenotypes, respectively

From: Rewriting the transcriptome: adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing by ADARs

Adar allele Genetic modifier (gene/protein) Method Function/substrate Outcome at birth Reference(s)
Adar1 –/– (p110 and p150     E11.5–12.0 lethal [30, 90]
Ifih1 –/– (MDA5) Mouse cross Long paired dsRNA Rescue: majority die by 2 days old [78]
Mavs –/– (MAVS) Mouse cross; Crispr cell line Effector of RIG-I and MDA5 Rescue: majority die by 2 days old; small number survive up to 20 days [78, 92, 93]
Rnasel –/– (RNase L) Crispr cell line Endoribonuclease; cleaves dsRNA Rescue (cell lines) [93]
Eif2ak2 –/– (PKR) Mouse cross dsRNA-activated serine/threonine kinase No rescue [90]
Tmem173 –/– (STING) Mouse cross Cytosolic DNA sensor No rescue [78]
Ddx58 –/– (RIG-I) Mouse cross Short 5′ phos RNA (ds and ss) No rescue [78]
Stat1 –/– (STAT1) Mouse cross Transcriptional effector of interferon pathway No rescue; lethal by E15.5 [92]
Ifnar –/– (IFNRα) Mouse cross Type I interferon receptor No rescue; lethal at E14.5–15.5 [78, 92]
Ifnar –/– Ifngr –/– (IFNαR/IFNγR) Mouse cross Type I and II interferon receptor No rescue; lethal at E15.5 [40]
Trp53 –/– (p53) Mouse cross Tumor suppressor; can modify cell death No rescue Unpublished (J. Hartner and C. Walkley)
Adar1p150 –/– (p150 KO only)     E11.5–12.0 lethal [77]
Mavs –/– (MAVS) Mouse cross Effector of RIG-I and MDA5 Rescue: majority survive to 20 days [78]
Adar1E861A/E861A (editing deficient)     E13.5 lethal [41]
Ifih1 –/– (MDA5) Mouse cross; cell lines Long paired dsRNA Rescue: majority survive normally In vitro cell lines—rescue [41, 106]
Ifnar –/– Ifngr –/– (IFNαR/IFNγR) Mouse cross Type I and II interferon receptor No rescue; lethal at E15.5 Unpublished (B. Liddicoat and C. Walkley)
Adar2 –/–     Early post-natal lethal (~20 days); seizures [13]
Gria2 R/R (GluA2 R/R) Mouse cross GluA2 glutamate receptor Rescue; adults normal [13, 89]