- Open Access
“Like sugar in milk”: reconstructing the genetic history of the Parsi population
- Gyaneshwer Chaubey†1Email authorView ORCID ID profile,
- Qasim Ayub†2Email author,
- Niraj Rai†3, 4,
- Satya Prakash3,
- Veena Mushrif-Tripathy5,
- Massimo Mezzavilla2,
- Ajai Kumar Pathak1, 6,
- Rakesh Tamang7,
- Sadaf Firasat8,
- Maere Reidla1, 6,
- Monika Karmin1, 6, 9,
- Deepa Selvi Rani3,
- Alla G. Reddy3,
- Jüri Parik1, 6,
- Ene Metspalu1, 6,
- Siiri Rootsi1,
- Kurush Dalal10,
- Shagufta Khaliq11,
- Syed Qasim Mehdi^8,
- Lalji Singh12,
- Mait Metspalu1,
- Toomas Kivisild1, 13,
- Chris Tyler-Smith2,
- Richard Villems†1, 6 and
- Kumarasamy Thangaraj†3Email author
© The Author(s). 2017
- Received: 1 February 2017
- Accepted: 23 May 2017
- Published: 14 June 2017
The Parsis are one of the smallest religious communities in the world. To understand the population structure and demographic history of this group in detail, we analyzed Indian and Pakistani Parsi populations using high-resolution genetic variation data on autosomal and uniparental loci (Y-chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA). Additionally, we also assayed mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms among ancient Parsi DNA samples excavated from Sanjan, in present day Gujarat, the place of their original settlement in India.
Among present-day populations, the Parsis are genetically closest to Iranian and the Caucasus populations rather than their South Asian neighbors. They also share the highest number of haplotypes with present-day Iranians and we estimate that the admixture of the Parsis with Indian populations occurred ~1,200 years ago. Enriched homozygosity in the Parsi reflects their recent isolation and inbreeding. We also observed 48% South-Asian-specific mitochondrial lineages among the ancient samples, which might have resulted from the assimilation of local females during the initial settlement. Finally, we show that Parsis are genetically closer to Neolithic Iranians than to modern Iranians, who have witnessed a more recent wave of admixture from the Near East.
Our results are consistent with the historically-recorded migration of the Parsi populations to South Asia in the 7th century and in agreement with their assimilation into the Indian sub-continent's population and cultural milieu "like sugar in milk". Moreover, in a wider context our results support a major demographic transition in West Asia due to the Islamic conquest.
- Y chromosome
- ancient DNA
The Parsi trace their ancestry to the ancestors of the Zoroastrians of modern Iran, who are followers of the Prophet Zoroaster or Zarathushtra . In the 7th century, the Zoroastrian Sassanian dynasty was threatened by Islamic conquest and a small group of Zoroastrians fled to Gujarat in present-day India, where they were called ‘Parsi’ (literally meaning ‘people from Paras or Fars’, the local term for Persia) [3, 4, 6, 13]. Several myths narrate their first arrival in the West Coast of India and settlement in Sanjan (Gujarat) [4, 14–17]. The most popular one mentioned in the Qissa-e-Sanjaan is that an Indian ruler called Jadi Rana sent a glass full of milk to the Parsi group seeking asylum [4, 18]. His message was that his kingdom was full with local people. The Zoroastrian immigrants put sugar (or a ring, in some versions of the story) into the milk to indicate an assimilation of their people into the local society, like “sugar in milk” [14, 18]. In contemporary India and Pakistan, we see their adoption of local languages (Gujarati and Sindhi) and economic integration while maintaining their ethnic identity and practicing strict endogamy [1, 3, 4, 12, 19–21].
Previous genetic analyses of the Parsis have focussed mainly on low-resolution uni-parental markers, which have suggested their affinity with both West Eurasian and Indian populations [22–24]. Autosomal analysis based on microsatellites or human leukocyte antigens (HLA) have revealed their intermediate position among the populations of South Asia and the Middle East/Europe [9, 24]. A study of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation reported 60% of South Asia lineages among the Pakistani Parsi population , whereas the male lineages based on Y chromosome admixture estimates were almost exclusively Iranian . Based on these results, a male-mediated migration followed by assimilation of local South Asia females was concluded .
These early studies of the Parsi populations relied mainly on low-resolution markers, limiting the power of the analyses [9, 23–25], and the majority of Parsis (~98.8%), who live in India, have been underrepresented in these studies. Here we present genome-wide genotyping array data from 43 and high-resolution mtDNA and Y-chromosome genotyping data from 174 Parsi samples from India and Pakistan. In addition, we also genotyped mtDNA polymorphisms from 21 ancient Parsi samples excavated from Sanjan, in present-day Gujarat, India (Fig. 1). The human remains from Sanjan dokhama (tower of silence) District Valsad, Gujarat, were excavated in 2004. The accelerator mass spectrometry dating of human remains suggest that the dokhama belongs to the 14th to 15th century A.D. .
We investigated whether the current Parsi people living in India and Pakistan are genetically related amongst themselves and with the present-day Iranian population, and if their genetic composition has been affected by the neighboring Indian and Pakistani populations. We also examined runs of homozygosity (RoH) to study consanguinity. To address the extent to which the current Parsi populations assimilated local females during their long formation history, we compared their mtDNA haplogroup composition with ancient remains excavated in Sanjan, the initial settlement established by these migrants from Persia .
For autosomal analyses, we used Illumina HumanHap 650 K genotyping chips on 19 Indian Parsi samples collected from Mumbai, and Illumina 2.5 M genotyping chips for 24 Pakistani Parsi individuals from Karachi (Fig. 1 and Additional file 1). The combined Parsi data set was merged with a global data set from the published literature [26–29] and references therein] . Additional file 1: Table S2 lists the populations and number of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) used for various analyses after quality control (Additional file 1). The mean allele frequency differentiation between the two Parsi (Indian and Pakistani) groups was the lowest (F ST Indian and Pakistani Parsi = 0.00033 ± 0.000025), followed by the differentiation of each from the Iranian population (0.011 ± 0.00021 and 0.012 ± 0.00025 for Pakistani and Indian Parsis, respectively), suggesting a common stock for both the Indian and Pakistani Parsis with the closest interpopulation affinity with populations from their putative homeland, Iran (Additional file 1: Figure S1 and Additional file 2: Table S3). Collectively, in F ST-based analysis, both of the Parsi groups showed a significantly closer connection with West Eurasians than any of the Indian groups (two-tailed P < 0.0001).
The South Indian and Iranian ancestry among Parsis and neighboring populations
South Indian (SE)
The test of geneflow (D statistics) between Parsis, modern Iranians, Neolithic Iranians, Sindhis, and Gujaratis
We computed a maximum likelihood tree and co-ancestry matrix based on the haplotype structure of the Parsi populations, applying the default settings of ChromoPainter and fineSTRUCTURE (version 1) . The maximum likelihood tree split South Asian and West Eurasian populations into two distinct clusters (Additional file 1: Figure S8). All the Parsi individuals form a unique sub-cluster embedded within the major West Eurasian population trunk. The co-ancestry matrix plot clearly differentiated Parsis from their neighbors in sharing a large number of chunk counts with West Eurasian (mainly Iranian and Middle Eastern) populations (Additional file 1: Figure S9 and supplementary text). Additionally, South Asian populations have donated a significantly higher number of chunks to Parsis than they received from them (two tailed P < 0.0001). However, the number of these chunks were significantly lower than the chunk counts shared between any pair of South Asian populations (two-tailed P < 0.0001) (Additional file 1: Figure S9). The fineSTRUCTURE and D statistic results thus largely suggest unidirectional minor gene flow from South Asians to Parsis (Table 2 and Additional file 1: Figure S9).
The formal text of admixture using the ALDER method
38.26 ± 12.16
32.96 ± 9.42
41.32 ± 8.93
1.7 × 10−5
30.74 ± 14.04
To investigate further the parental relatedness among Parsis , we analyzed the RoH and inbreeding coefficient in the population (Additional file 1: Figure S10). For RoH calculations, we applied three window sizes (1000, 2500, and 5000 kb), requiring a minimum of 100 SNPs per window and allowing one heterozygous and five missing calls per window. Long RoH segments characterize consanguinity and also provide a distinctive record of the demographic history for a particular population [42, 43]. As expected, both of the Parsi populations carried a larger number of long segments relative to their putative parental populations and present neighbors at the 1000-kb window length, likely due to the small population size and a high level of inbreeding. However, the Sindhi population from Pakistan also showed a higher level of inbreeding at the larger RoH window sizes, most likely due to an elevated level of cross-cousin marriages (Additional file 1: Figure S10).
To investigate how random genetic drift has shaped the functional genetic variation after admixture in the Parsis, we implemented the population branch statistic  using the Sindhi and Iranians as reference and outgroup. We analysed variants over the 99.9th percentile of the genomic distribution, focussing only on those that were annotated as missense, stop gain, stop loss, splice acceptor, or splice donor using the Ensembl Variant Effect Predictor tool . This revealed a cluster of linked SNPs in the HLA region and a missense SNP in CD86 (rs1129055) with a high ancestral G allele frequency in the Parsi (0.87) (Additional file 1: Figure S11 and Table S8). The frequency of this G allele is lower in the Iranians and Sindhi (0.60) and other South Asians (0.52) and East Asians (0.40). This polymorphism has been associated with the pathogenesis of pneumonia-induced sepsis and the G allele has been associated with a decreased risk of active brucellosis in Iranians . The G variant has also been associated as an eQTL for decreased expression of IQBC1, an IQ-motif-containing B1 gene that is highly expressed in Epstein–Barr virus-transformed B lymphocytes .
In conclusion, our investigation has not only contributed substantial new data, but has also provided a more comprehensive insight into the population structure of Parsis and their genetic links to Iranians and South Asians. We show that the Parsis are genetically closer to Iranian and Caucasian populations than those in South Asia and provide evidence of sex-specific admixture with the prevailing female gene flow from South Asians to the Parsis. Our results are consistent with the historically recorded migration of the Parsi populations to South Asia in the 7th century and in agreement with their assimilation into the Indian sub-continent’s population and cultural milieu “like sugar in milk”.
A detailed description of the material and methods can be found in the supplementary text (Additional file 1). The modern Parsi samples were pooled from three independent collections: two from Mumbai, India, and one from Karachi, Pakistan (Fig. 1). Illumina 650 K and 2.5 M chips were used to genotype 19 Indian and 24 Pakistani Parsi individuals, respectively, following the manufacturer’s specifications. We merged our newly generated data of 43 samples with the relevant reference data sets of 829 samples published elsewhere (Additional file 1: supplementary text and Table S2). For mtDNA control and coding region polymorphisms, we genotyped 117 Indian and 50 Pakistani Parsi samples (Additional file 1: Table S9). We followed phylotree (build 17) to classify them into haplogroups. For Y chromosome genotyping, 90 Pakistani samples were genotyped either by sequencing or by (PCR-RFLP) Polymerase Chain Reaction- Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism for the relevant Y chromosome markers, whereas 84 Indian samples were assayed for 80 Y chromosomal SNPs using Sequenom mass array technology (Additional file 1: Table S10).
Ancient DNA samples were excavated from Sanjan, Gujarat, in 2001 (Additional file 1: supplementary text). Archaeological analysis and accelerator mass spectrometry dating were consistent with these remains belonging most likely to migrant Parsis from the 8–13th centuries (Additional file 1: supplementary text). The teeth obtained from 21 of these specimens were analyzed at the ancient DNA laboratory of the Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Hyderabad, India. We followed our standard published protocol to isolate DNA from teeth  (Additional file 1: supplementary text).
For autosomal analyses, after data curation and merging (Additional file 1: supplementary text), we first used the method of Cockerham and Weir  to estimate the mean pairwise F ST. Further, we performed PCA on pruned data using SMARTPCA v.7521  (with default settings). We also used the F ST :Yes method of SMARTPCA to calculate the F ST with standard errors. We ran unsupervised ADMIXTURE v.1.23 for 25 times for each K = 2 to K = 12, and used the method described previously to choose the best K value [28–29]. The F statistics were calculated by the ADMIXTOOLS package v.3  and the haplotype-based analysis was performed by Chromopainter and fineSTRUCTURE v.1 . The maximum likelihood tree of world populations was constructed using TreeMix v.1.12  and the RoH were calculated using PLINK 1.9 . ALDER v 1.03  and MALDER v.1.0  were used to calculate the time and number of admixture events. The population branch statistic method  was used to identify genomic regions under selection in the Parsi population.
We are grateful to the Parsi community of India and Pakistan for donating their samples. We are also thankful to Dr. Shernaz Cama, Director, Parzor Foundation, New Delhi, India, for her help and critical comments and Tuuli Reisberg for technical assistance. GC thanks Giacomo Benedetti and Alberto Gonzalez for a useful discussion. The analyses were performed in the High Performance Computer Center of the University of Tartu, Estonia, and the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, UK. We dedicate this paper to the memory of our esteemed colleague, SQM. May his soul rest in peace.
Support was provided by Estonian personal grants PUT-766 (GC, MK, and AKP); the EU European Regional Development Fund through the Centre of Excellence in Genomics to the Estonian Biocentre and project 2014–2020.4.01.15-0012, and Estonian Institutional Research grants IUT24-1 (RV, MM, SR, EM, MR, and TK); CSIR, Government of India (KT); Wellcome Trust grant 098051 (QA and CTS); World Zarathushti Cultural Foundation, Parsi Foundation, and the Indian Archaeological Society (VMT); PIRSES-GA-2012-318979 grant (MK) DST, Government of India (LS), and an ERC Starting Investigator grant (FP7 - 261213) (TK). AKP was supported by the European Social Fund's Doctoral Studies and Internationalisation Programme DoRa. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
Availability of data and materials
The data are available from the Gene Expression Omnibus of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (accession GSE97086) and the data repository of the Estonian Biocentre (www.ebc.ee/free_data).
GC, QA, RV, KT, and NR conceived the project and designed the experiments. GC, QA, NR, SP, AKP, RT, SF, MR, MK, DSR, AGR, JP, EM, SR, and SK carried out haploid DNA genotyping and analyses. GC, QA, MMz, and TK analysed the autosomal data. VMT and KD performed the archaeological study. VMT and NR collected ancient samples. NR isolated DNA from ancient remains and performed genotyping. SQM, LS, MM, CTS, RV, and KT provided samples and reagents. GC, QA, NR, VMT, and MMz wrote the manuscript with the help of TK, CTS, RV, MM, and KT. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Ethics approval and consent to participate
Informed written consent was obtained from all the participants. The ethics committees of the participating institutions all approved the study: Research Ethics Committee of the University of Tartu (approval 252/M-17); Institutional Ethics Committee, CSIR Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Hyderabad, India; Human Materials and Data Management Committee, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, UK; and Human Subjects Committee at the Biomedical & Genetic Engineering Division, Islamabad, Pakistan. All the experimental methods comply with the Helsinki Declaration.
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