Molecular species phylogeny and orthology. (A) The maximum likelihood molecular species phylogeny estimated from universal single-copy orthologs supports the recognized species relationships with An. stephensi and An. gambiae in subgenus Cellia within the genus Anopheles. (B) Comparative analysis of orthologs from An. stephensi, An. gambiae, Ae. aegypti, and D. melanogaster. Orthologous genes were retrieved from OrthoDB. A total of 7,305 genes were shared among all four species, 1,297 genes were specific to An. stephensi, 653 genes were Anopheles-specific, and 1,863 genes were mosquito-specific.