GSTe2 polymorphism and DDT resistance. (A) Maximum likelihood tree of GSTe2 cDNA across Africa. (B) Same as in (A), but with DDT-resistant (AL) and DDT-susceptible (DE) mosquitoes in Benin (genomic DNA). (C) GSTe2 haplotype network (TCS) between susceptible and resistant mosquitoes (Benin). The polygon size reflects the haplotype frequency. Each node represents a mutation (number). (D) GSTe2 expression profile of the three L119F genotypes in Cameroon (Gounougou). BN, Benin; DDT, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane; MAL, Malawi; UG, Uganda; ZB; Zambia.