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Table 2 Adaptive strategies of psychrophilic prokaryotes to cope with low temperatures and potential adaptation in C. subellipsoidea C-169

From: The genome of the polar eukaryotic microalga Coccomyxa subellipsoidea reveals traits of cold adaptation

Adaptive strategy Prokaryotic genes or events involved in the process C-169-specific genes potentially involved in the process
Increased fluidity of cellular membranes at low temperature Unsaturated fatty acid (FA) synthesis genes, FA desaturases Lipid biosynthesis genes, including FA synthase type I, FA desaturases, lipases
Reduction of freezing point of cytoplasm and stabilization of macromolecules Genes for synthesis of compatible solutes, membrane transporters, antifreeze proteins and ice-binding proteins Production of antifreeze lipoproteins, exopolysaccharides and glycoproteins: lipid biosynthesis genes, including FA synthase type I and FA ligases; carbohydrate metabolism genes, including glycosyl hydrolases and glycosyl transferases
Protection against reactive oxygen species Catalases, peroxidases, superoxide dismutases, oxidoreductases Dioxygen-dependant FA desaturases, DOPA-dioxygenase, loss of the gene encoding photosystem 1 subunit PsaN
Maintain catalytic efficiency at low temperatures Global change in amino acid composition of encoded proteins to decrease protein structural rigidity No apparent change in global amino acid composition relative to mesophilic plants and green algae
  1. The adaptive strategies of psychrophilic prokaryotes to cope with low temperatures are modified from Table 1 in [34].