Comparison of the growth rates for wild-type and misfolding-prone LacZ. (a) Growth rates of cells expressing WT LacZ relative to uninduced cells and cells expressing each of the five destabilizing mutants (10 μM IPTG). Mann-Whitney U P-value: *0.02; **8 × 10-4. (b) Growth rates of cells expressing WT LacZ and two mutants at different induction (IPTG) levels; the growth rate of cells carrying an empty plasmid is also shown for comparison. (c) Growth rates of cells expressing LacZ and two destabilizing mutants on acetate and glycerol as the main carbon source; in both cases expression was induced with 10 μM ITPG). Error bars represent the standard error of the mean calculated based on triplicate experiments.