Schematic description of divergence triangulation. (a) A phylogenetic tree depicting the necessary topology for the application of the divergence triangulation method. (b) The ancient DNA sequences are used like an outgroup to the two genomic sequences in an unrooted tree. (c) Alignments between genomic sequences and ancient DNA fragments are used to assign changes to the lineages (numbers on the right-hand side). In this process, coinciding changes often caused by ancient DNA damage (shown in red in the alignments) can lead to misassignments of differences (in red in the summary of tables) (d) The assigned differences can be used to calculate a divergence relative to the divergence between the two genome sequences.