MommeD10-/- mice are smaller than their littermates and display craniofacial abnormalities. (a) Body weight was measured for 46 MommeD10+/+, 102 MommeD10-/+ and 10 MommeD10-/- weaners (3 weeks), and 11 MommeD10+/+, 22 MommeD10-/+ and 5 MommeD10-/- embryos (18.5 dpc). Histograms show mean and SEM. (b) Craniofacial abnormalities in adult MommeD10-/- mice. MommeD10-/- mice display shorter snouts than age and sex-matched wild-type littermates. (c) Three-dimensional reconstruction of skull microCT data from 4-week-old male mice reveals distinct anomalies in homozygous Baz1B mice. Left side: lateral views show the overall size and shape of heterozygous skulls is similar to that of wild-type skulls, whereas skulls of homozygotes were around 20% shorter. Homozygous skulls showed variable anomalies, but consistently had a bulbous appearance, and a short, flattened, or upwardly angulated nasal bone (yellow arrowhead). Slight angulation of the nasal bones was also noted in one heterozygote. Right side: dorsal view of the homozygote skull shown on the left side showing the abnormal shape and more rostral connection of the zygomatic process with the squamosal bone (yellow arrow), skewing of the midline frontal bone suture (black arrow) and minor bilateral anomalies of the frontal:parietal suture (black arrowheads). (d) Twenty cranial landmarks and nine mandibular landmarks (based on those of Richtsmeier ) were located on each of nine skulls and inter-landmark measurements recorded. The mean value of each measurement, including analysis of cranium height:width and cranium length:height ratios, was compared between homozygous, heterozygous and wild-type animals.