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Table 3 Arrestin binding partners

From: Arrestins: ubiquitous regulators of cellular signaling pathways

   Arrestin conformation   
Binding proteins* Arrestin subtype GPCR-bound Free Function References
Trafficking proteins
Clathrin Arrestin2, arrestin3 +++ + Endocytosis [27]
AP-2 Arrestin2, arrestin3 +++ + Endocytosis [28]
NSF Arrestin2 + + Endocytosis, recycling [72]
Small G proteins and guanyl nucleotide exchange factors
ARF6 Arrestin3, arrestin2 +++ +++ Endocytosis, docking [32,33]
ARNO Arrestin3 +++ +++ Endocytosis [32,33]
RalGDS Arrestin2, arrestin3 ? +++ Ral-mediated cytoskeleton reorganization [36]
RhoA Arrestin2 ? ? Angiotensin II-dependent stress fiber formation [34]
MAP kinase cascade components
ASK1 Arrestin3 +++ ? JNK3 and p38 activation [38]
c-Raf-1 Arrestin2, arrestin3 +++ ? ERK activation [37]
JNK3 Arrestin2, arrestin3, rod arrestin, cone arrestin +++ +++ Stabilization of phosphorylated (active) JNK on endosomes; export of phosphorylated (active) JNK from the nucleus [24,38,54]
ERK2 Arrestin2, arrestin3 +++ ? Stabilization of phosphorylated (active) ERK on endosomes [37]
Non-receptor tyrosine kinases
c-Src Arrestin2, arrestin3 +++ ? Endocytosis, ERK activation [39]
Yes Arrestin2 +++ ? q activation and GLUT4 transport [41]
Hck Arrestin2 +++ ? Exocytosis of granules in neutrophils [40]
Fgr Arrestin2 +++ ? Exocytosis of granules in neutrophils [40]
Non-GPCR membrane proteins
Na+/H+ exchanger NHE5 Arrestin2, arrestin3 ? + Trafficking [52]
IGF I receptor Arrestin2, arrestin3 ? + Trafficking [49]
LDL receptor Arrestin3 ? + Trafficking [51]
TGF-β receptor type III Arrestin3 ? + Trafficking [50]
TrkA receptor Arrestin2 ? + Endocytosis, MAPK activation [73]
Other
Mdm2 Arrestin2, arrestin3, rod arrestin, cone arrestin ++ +++ Receptor ubiquitination, endocytosis, export of Mdm2 from the nucleus [24,44,55]
Deltex Drosophila Kurtz ? + Degradation of Notch receptor [45]
IκBα Arrestin2, arrestin3 +++ + Stabilization of IκBα, β2AP and TNFR stimulation [47,74]
PDE4D family Arrestin2, arrestin3 +++ ? cAMP degradation [42]
PP2A Arrestin2 +++ +++ Ser412 dephosphorylation [46]
MKP7 Arrestin2, arrestin3 +++ ? Dephosphorylation [43]
Akt Arrestin2, arrestin3 +++ ? Dephosphorylation [46]
Microtubules Arrestin2, arrestin3, rod arrestin, cone arrestin - +++ Subcellular localization [75]
Dishevelled Arrestin2, arrestin3 ? + Transcription regulation, endocytosis of Frizzled4 [76,77]
TRAF6 Arrestin3 ? ? Regulation of TLR-IL-1R signaling [48]
Histone acetyltransferase p300 Arrestin2 ? +++ Regulates histone H4 acetylation and activity of p27 and c-fos promoters [62]
Calmodulin (with Ca2+) Arrestin2, arrestin3, rod and cone arrestin - +++ Ca2+ signaling? [56]
Small molecules
Phosphoinositides Arrestin2, arrestin3, Drosophila arrestin-2 +++ +++ Endocytosis, light-dependent translocation of Drosophila arrestin2 in photoreceptors [78,79]
Inositol phosphates Rod arrestin, arrestin2, arrestin3 - +++ Arrestin oligomerization, inhibition of receptor binding [80,81]
  1. *This table includes only arrestin binding partners that are not GPCRs. For a list of GPCRs that have been shown to interact with arrestins, see [1]. Abbreviations: Fgr, a Src-family member; GLUT4, glucose transporter 4; Hck, hematopoietic cell kinase; IL-1R, interleukin 1 receptor; NSF, N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor; TLR, Toll-like receptor; TrkA receptor, nerve growth factor receptor; Yes, a Src-family member. The binding of the partners to different conformational states of arrestin is designated, as follows: +, binds; +++, binds with high-affinity; ?, not known.