Relative distributions of absolute carbon fluxes in the S. cerevisiae reference strain and the duplicate gene mutants ald6, cox5A and mdh1. All fluxes are normalized to the specific glucose uptake rate, which is shown in the top inset, and are given in the same order in each box. Reactions encoded by deleted genes are shown on a black background, but were not removed from the flux model. The NADPH balance that is based on the fluxes and the known cofactor specificities is given as a synthetic transhydrogenase. In general, the 95% confidence intervals were between 5 and 10% for the major fluxes. Larger confidence intervals were estimated for reactions with low flux such as malic enzyme and PEP carboxykinase. Flux distributions were verified in 30-ml shake flask cultures (data not shown). C1, one-carbon unit from C1 metabolism; P5P, pentose 5-phosphates.