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Table 1 Error values for biological and random codon usages

From: Do universal codon-usage patterns minimize the effects of mutation and translation error?

  Archaea Bacteria Eukaryotes
Natural codon usages 67.7 ± 3.42 64.7 ± 1.77 63.8 ± 2.14
Codon permuted 52.4 ± 4.92 52.2 ± 5.15 52.7 ± 3.61
Codon random 52.6 ± 3.76 52.6 ± 3.47 52.4 ± 3.16
Amino acid permuted 61.6 ± 8.74 61.0 ± 6.95 61.1 ± 6.35
Amino acid random 61.0 ± 7.37 61.8 ± 6.96 61.7 ± 6.72
Positional base permuted 51.7 ± 6.49 52.3 ± 6.91 52.2 ± 5.44
Positional base random 52.1 ± 10.5 53.4 ± 12.6 52.1 ± 12.9
  1. Mean ± standard deviation for each set of codon usages. The natural codon usages invariably have higher error values and lower standard deviations than any of the random or randomized codon usages: this pattern is consistent for all three domains of life.