Sequence conservation in BTB domains. The most probable sequences (majority-rule consensus sequences) from each of seven different family-specific hidden Markov models (HMMs) were generated with HMMER hmmemit. Residue positions with a probability score (P(s)) of less than 0.6 are variable and are indicated by dots, residues with 0.6 < P(s) < 0.8 have intermediate levels of sequence conservation and are indicated by lower case letters, and residues with a P(s) > 0.8 are highly conserved and are indicated by capital letters. Gray shading indicates positions that are similar in at least four of the seven families shown, and selected 'signature sequences' that are particular to a specific family are boxed in blue. Gaps are indicated by blank spaces. Residue positions that are buried in the core of the BTB fold are indicated with black circles, and contact sites for four known protein-protein interaction surfaces are shown in the grid below the alignment. The secondary structure elements β1, α1, α4, β5, α7 and α8 occur only in some of the families, and are discussed in the text. Additional Data File 1 includes multiple sequence alignments for these families.