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Table 1 Genes, location, inferred or potential function, and directionality of introgression between llama and alpaca, revealed by Local Ancestry Inference and ABBA-BABA analysis (fd)

From: Genomic analysis of the domestication and post-Spanish conquest evolution of the llama and alpaca

Gene Chromosome Function Directionality LAI, fd, or both
Olfactory receptor (OR5) family ChrUN Olfaction/dietary choice [14] Llama–Alpaca Both
Anthrax toxin receptor 2 (ANTXR2) 2 Anthrax resistance/susceptibility [15] Llama–Alpaca Both
Fibroblast growth factor 5 (FGF5) 2 Longwool/shortwool fleece [16] Llama–Alpaca Both
C4orf22 2 ANTXR2,FGF5, C4orf22 region linked to high blood pressure susceptibility [17] Llama–Alpaca Both
Atrial natriuretic peptide-converting enzyme (CORIN) 2 Negatively regulates Agouti, yellow coat in Hanwoo cattle [18] Alpaca–Llama Both
Endothelin 3 (EDN3) 19 Blue-eyed, white coat phenotype in Waardenburg syndrome of human [19] Alpaca–Llama Both
Olfactory receptor (OR2) family ChrUN Olfaction/dietary choice [14] Alpaca–Llama fd
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) 11 Melanogenesis in alpaca [20] Alpaca–Llama Both
Agouti signaling protein (ASIP) 19 Pigmentation [21, 22] Alpaca–Llama fd
Transgelin (TAGLN) 33 Fiber development in Merino sheep [23] Alpaca–Llama fd
GNAS complex 19 Performance traits in cattle (imprinted) [24] Alpaca–Llama Both
Cathepsin Z (CSTZ) 19 Immunoprotection [25, 26] Alpaca–Llama Both