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Fig. 2 | Genome Biology

Fig. 2

From: HOPS: a quantitative score reveals pervasive horizontal pleiotropy in human genetic variation is driven by extreme polygenicity of human traits and diseases

Fig. 2

Contributions of linkage disequilibrium (LD) and polygenicity to horizontal pleiotropy. In addition to the normal sense of horizontal pleiotropy, both linkage disequilibrium (LD) and polygenicity are expected to contribute to horizontal pleiotropy. In the case of LD-induced horizontal pleiotropy, two linked SNVs have independent effects on different traits which appear pleiotropic because of the linkage between the SNVs. In the case of polygenicity-induced horizontal pleiotropy, two highly polygenic traits have an overlap in their polygenic footprint

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