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Table 3 Diet among HCHS/SOL participants, classified according to place of birth and age at relocation from Latin America to the mainland USA

From: Gut microbiome composition in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos is shaped by geographic relocation, environmental factors, and obesity

 Mainland US born, Mean (SE)Relocated 0–17 years old, Mean (SE)Relocated 18–34 years old, Mean (SE)Relocated 35–44 years old, Mean (SE)Relocated 45+ years old, Mean (SE)
N225235730306261
Overall diet
 AHEI score, mean47.4 (0.4)49.2 (0.4)†51.4 (0.2) †51.4 (0.4) †51.4 (0.4) †
 Dietary acculturation scale*2.6 (0.06)2.2 (0.05) †1.7 (0.03) †1.5 (0.05) †1.5 (0.05) †
Nutrient intake
 Energy, mean (kcal)1962 (23)1918 (22)1888 (13) †1899 (19)1903 (22)
 Carbohydrates, mean (g)234 (1.6)241 (1.5) †242 (0.9) †245 (1.3) †245 (1.5) †
 Carbohydrates, mean (% calories)50.9 (0.2)51.8 (0.2) †52.2 (0.1) †52.7 (0.2) †52.6 (0.2) †
 Protein, mean (g)77.1 (0.5)77.2 (0.5)78.2 (0.3)77.7 (0.4)77.9 (0.5)
 Protein, mean (% calories)16.9 (0.1)16.9 (0.1)17.1 (0.1)17.0 (0.1)17.1 (0.1)
 Fat, mean (g)67.5 (0.5)65.6 (0.4) †64.5 (0.3) †63.2 (0.4) †63.0 (0.4) †
 Fat, mean (% calories)30.9 (0.2)30.2 (0.2) †29.8 (0.1) †29.3 (0.1) †29.2 (0.2) †
 Saturated fat, mean (% calories)10.2 (0.1)9.9 (0.1) †9.7 (0.0) †9.6 (0.1) †9.5 (0.1) †
 Saturated fat, mean (g)22.1 (0.2)21.3 (0.2) †20.8 (0.1) †20.5 (0.2) †20.4 (0.2) †
 Transfat, mean (g)2.9 (0.04)2.6 (0.04) †2.4 (0.02) †2.4 (0.04) †2.3 (0.04) †
 Dietary fiber, mean (g)16.5 (0.3)17.9 (0.2) †19.1 (0.1) †19.3 (0.2) †19.1 (0.2) †
 Sodium, mean (g)3332 (40)3179 (37) †3141 (22) †3159 (33) †3152 (37) †
Intake of specific foods
 Vegetable excluding potato, mean (servings/day)1.8 (0.2)1.9 (0.1)2.0 (0.1)2.0 (0.1)2.0 (0.1)
 Fruit excluding juice, mean (servings/day)0.7 (0.1)1.0 (0.1)1.2 (0.1) †1.3 (0.1) †1.3 (0.1) †
 Whole grain, mean (servings/day)1.0 (0.2)1.5 (0.2) †1.9 (0.1) †1.8 (0.1) †1.9 (0.2) †
 Refined grain, mean (servings/day)4.9 (0.2)4.7 (0.2)4.5 (0.1)4.9 (0.2)4.6 (0.2)
 Meat, mean (servings/day)6.4 (0.3)5.9 (0.2)5.7 (0.1)5.4 (0.2) †5.3 (0.2) †
 Red meat, mean (servings/day)1.9 (0.2)1.8 (0.2)1.8 (0.1)1.8 (0.2)1.8 (0.2)
 Processed meat, mean (servings/day)0.9 (0.1)0.9 (0.1)0.7 (0.1)0.7 (0.1)0.9 (0.1)
 Nuts and legumes, mean (servings/day)1.0 (0.1)0.7 (0.1)0.9 (0.1)1.0 (0.1)1.0 (0.1)
 Sugar sweetened beverages, mean (servings/day)1.2 (0.1)1.3 (0.1)1.2 (0.1)1.2 (0.1)1.3 (0.1)
 Milk/dairy, mean (servings/day)1.5 (0.1)1.6 (0.1)1.6 (0.1)1.6 (0.1)1.5 (0.1)
 Alcohol, mean (servings/day)0.35 (0.03)0.28 (0.03)0.26 (0.02)0.30 (0.03)0.32 (0.03)
  1. AHEI Alternative Healthy Eating Index (Chiuve [12])
  2. *Dietary acculturation scale 1 = Mainly Latino food, 2 = Mostly Latino food and some American food, 3 = Equal, 4 = Mostly American food, 5 = Mainly American food
  3. Nutrient intake was predicted from an amount model (i.e., a one-part non-linear mixed model) specified by the NCI method (Tooze, [21]), using single-component SAS macros developed at NCI http://riskfactor.cancer.gov/diet/usualintakes/macros.html. This method estimates the within- and between-person components and corrects for the high intra-individual variation intrinsic to 24-h recalls given that individuals do not eat the same foods every day. We excluded recalls with daily energy intake below the recall-gender-specific 1st percentile or above the 99th percentile, and recalls that were unreliable according to the interviewer
  4. Column comparisons are adjusted for age, sex, and field center. Additional adjustment has been made for predicted daily energy intake, for analyses of nutrients and specific foods
  5. P < 0.05 comparing to US born (P adjusted for pairwise comparison)