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Table 1 Demographic, behavioral, and socioeconomic variables, by birthplace and age at relocation to the mainland USA

From: Gut microbiome composition in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos is shaped by geographic relocation, environmental factors, and obesity

 Mainland US bornRelocated 0–17 years oldRelocated 18–34 years oldRelocated 35–44 years oldRelocated 45+ years old
Age in years, mean48.3 (13.8)54.7 (12.1)56.6 (9.8)59.2 (7.6)65.7 (6.6)
Sex (women)58%64%65%66%65%
Height, cm164.0 (8.9)160.6 (8.7)159.5 (8.6)159.7 (8.6)159.2 (9.5)
Education level < 9th grade6%22%34%30%32%
Education level > high school61%38%32%45%45%
Household income > $30K/year56%46%38%35%26%
Mother’s education > high school14%7%8%7%7%
Father’s education > high school10%11%10%10%11%
English language preference76%34%2%1%0.40%
Median year of relocation to USA1970198419962003
Childhood economic hardship*55%48%57%55%53%
Childhood sanitation†99%88%76%85%74%
Return to home country in last year35%34%50%47%50%
SASH social relations subscale2.6 (0.5)2.4 (0.6)2.2 (0.6)2.0 (0.6)1.9 (0.5)
Hispanic diet habits (dietary acculturation) ‡40%61%82%90%89%
AHEI score, mean47.8 (8.2)49.9 (7.7)52.5 (7.1)52.0 (7.1)51.7 (7.1)
MVPA, meets 2008 guideline goals44%35%39%39%30%
Sedentary time, upper quartile19%29%21%28%36%
Hours of sleep, mean7.9 (1.5)7.9 (1.5)7.8 (1.4)7.8 (1.3)7.7 (1.2)
  1. Numbers indicate percent or mean (standard deviation). SASH Short Acculturation Scale for Hispanics (Marin [11], higher score indicates more non-Hispanic/Latino social relations), AHEI Alternative Healthy Eating Index (Chiuve [12], higher score indicates more healthful diet), MVPA moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, which was here defined according to whether individuals met 2008 US guidelines for healthy lifestyle (Ekelund, [13])
  2. * English: “Did your family ever experience a period of time when they had trouble paying for their basic needs, such as food, housing, medical care, and utilities, when you were a child? / Spanish: ¿Su familia alguna vez tuvo dificultades para pagar sus necesidades básicas como comidas, vivienda, cuidados médicos, o servicios públicos, cuando usted era niño(a)?”
  3. † English: “When you were growing up, did your home have the following basic utilities?... plumbing, septic tank. / Spanish: ¿Cuándo usted estaba creciendo, la casa donde vivía tenía los siguientes servicios públicos? Plomería, Drenaje/fosa séptica”
  4. ‡ English: “Of Hispanic/Latino and American food, do you usually eat...? Mainly or Mostly Hispanic/Latino foods” / Spanish: “De la comida hispana/latina y la comida americana, ¿por lo general come usted...? Principalmente comidas hispanas/latinas, or Mayormente comidas hispanas/latinas y algunas comidas americanas”