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Fig. 5 | Genome Biology

Fig. 5

From: Gut microbiome composition in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos is shaped by geographic relocation, environmental factors, and obesity

Fig. 5

Summary of findings relating to acculturation and GMB among US Latinos. The graphs summarize the results relating birthplace and migration history with summary measures of GMB including Prevotella to Bacteroides ratio, bacterial and fungal diversity. Older age at arrival to the mainland USA, consistent with the least exposure to the USA and the lowest acculturation to the US lifestyle, was associated with the highest Prevotella to Bacteroides ratio. This profile also went along with high fungal alpha diversity. Results for the bacterial GMB community were more complex. High bacterial diversity was found among the US born, and also among the group who relocated to the mainland USA from Latin America in older adulthood. The lowest bacterial alpha diversity was observed among those relocating from Latin America to the mainland USA during early life. Values were derived from fitted multivariate linear regression models as predicted mean outcomes in each category of birthplace and age at relocation, holding model covariates constant at either their mean value (for continuous variables, length of visit to home country/territory, intake of whole fruits, whole vegetables and whole grains, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity) or at the value of the most frequent category variable response (sex = female, field center = Chicago, body mass index = overweight, glycemic status = abnormal, metformin use = no, education = greater than high school level, annual income = $20,000 to $40,000/year, and antibiotic use in the last 6 months = no)

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