Association of birthplace and acculturation-related variables with bacterial 16S (a) and fungal ITS1 (b) gut microbiome features. a Bacterial microbiome associations. Shown are the results of models adjusted for age (except for the model for age at relocation), sex, field center, intake of vegetables without potatoes, intake of whole fruit, intake of whole grains, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (continuous), BMI (six groups), diabetes (three groups), length of visit to home country (continuous), education level (four groups), income level (five groups), antibiotic in last 6 months (binary), and metformin use (binary). Plot shows linear regression beta estimates and 95% confidence intervals for mean standardized gut microbiome outcomes. Estimates for which q value was less than 0.05 are shown in blue. Groups with less than 15 individuals were excluded from comparison, specifically: among individuals born in the US mainland, group sizes were as follows: South American, 7; Cuban, 12; Central American, 7; Dominican, 5. Sample sizes (n) for panel a are the same as those displayed in panel b. b Fungal microbiome associations, analyzed in similar manner as described in A. No estimates in panel b had a q value less than 0.05. Arrows indicate that the upper confidence limit exceeded the range of the X axis. PCoA1 and PCoA2 denote first and second principal coordinate from principal coordinate analysis.