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Table 1 Postnatal changes in active rumen bacteria, rumen morphology, and metabolites of pre-weaned calves

From: Regulation of rumen development in neonatal ruminants through microbial metagenomes and host transcriptomes

  Calf age P value
1 week 3 weeks 6 weeks
Active rumen bacteria
R. flavefaciens1 3.8 ± 1.9E08a 1.6 ± 0.4E09b 1.3 ± 0.5E09b 0.03
R. albus 1.4 ± 0.5E05 6.3 ± 6.2E06 2.2 ± 1.7E07 0.34
P. ruminicola 6.4 ± 2.7E04 4.4 ± 3.0E05 7.6 ± 7.4E07 0.37
E. ruminantium 7.8 ± 3.8E05 1.5 ± 0.6E06 1.6 ± 0.6E06 0.48
Rumen papillae
 Length (μm) 317.8 ± 7.6a 413.0 ± 13.6b 678.1 ± 41.1c < 0.01
 Width (μm) 155.5 ± 2.7a 224.0 ± 6.3b 275.8 ± 9.0c < 0.01
Rumen fermentation parameters
 Acetate2 21.1 ± 2.2a 37.0 ± 2.8b 50.3 ± 3.8c < 0.01
 Propionate 10.6 ± 2.0a 25.8 ± 4.3b 36.3 ± 1.8c < 0.01
 Butyrate 5.6 ± 1.8a 11.8 ± 2.7b 17.8 ± 2.2b < 0.01
 Isobutyrate 0.3 ± 0.04a 0.8 ± 0.1b 1.3 ± 0.1c < 0.01
 Valerate 1.0 ± 0.4a 3.7 ± 0.7b 5.1 ± 0.8b < 0.01
 Isovalerate 0.3 ± 0.07a 0.8 ± 0.1a 1.3 ± 0.3b < 0.01
 Total 39.6 ± 6.2a 80.5 ± 9.0b 113.9 ± 6.9c < 0.01
 Acetate3 55.3 ± 2.7a 47.0 ± 2.4b 44.2 ± 1.9b 0.01
 Propionate 26.7 ± 1.4 31.3 ± 2.9 32.1 ± 1.4 NS
 Butyrate 13.0 ± 2.0 14.4 ± 2.5 15.4 ± 1.4 NS
 Isobutyrate 0.8 ± 0.1 1.0 ± 0.1 1.2 ± 0.1 NS
 Valerate 2.1 ± 0.5a 4.6 ± 0.6b 4.5 ± 0.6b 0.01
 Isovalerate 0.8 ± 0.2 1.0 ± 0.2 1.2 ± 0.2 NS
  1. Means with different superscript letters within a row are significantly different at P < 0.05
  2. 1Density of active rumen bacteria (16S rRNA copy/g of rumen content)
  3. 2VFA concentration (mM/mL of rumen fluid)
  4. 3Molar proportion of VFA (%)