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Fig. 5 | Genome Biology

Fig. 5

From: Regulation of rumen development in neonatal ruminants through microbial metagenomes and host transcriptomes

Fig. 5

Proposed host-microbial interactions and their regulatory mechanisms in the developing rumen. Early rumen microbiota alters the rumen development via direct and indirect (miRNAs) interactions with the transcriptome. Microbial-derived VFAs are associated with genes involved in ruminal tissue metabolism (M10 gene module), non-coding RNA processing (M2 gene module), and epigenetic modifications (M18 gene module) as well as miRNAs regulating epithelial morphogenesis (R7 miRNA module). miRNAs regulate the host transcriptome either in response to microbial metabolites/rumen microbiota or directly during the early rumen development

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