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Table 1 Divergence time estimation between African populations speaking languages belonging to the main language phyla. All the estimates were inferred with MSMC using one individual from each population. CRHG represents central African rainforest hunter-gatherers, including east central African rainforest hunter-gatherers (East CRHG) Mbuti, west central African rainforest hunter-gatherers (West CRHG) Baka, Biaka, Bakola, and Bedzan. San: Khomani San and Ju|'hoan; Niger-Congo: Yoruba. Nilo-Saharan: Sengwer. Afroasiatic: Rendille. CRHG: Baka, Biaka, Bakola, Bedzan, Mbuti. The divergence times that we report here are based on relative cross-coalescent rates at 50% (25–75%)

From: African evolutionary history inferred from whole genome sequence data of 44 indigenous African populations

Population 1 Population 2 Divergence time (kya)
San Niger-Congo ~ 100 (59–160)
San Nilo-Saharan ~ 100–120 (44–160)
San Afroasiatic ~ 100–120 (52–160)
San Hadza and Sandawe ~ 68–85 (44–100)
San CRHG ~ 78–85 (52–120)
West CRHG East CRHG ~ 44 (31–50)
Niger-Congo Afroasiatic ~ 34 (22–54)
Niger-Congo Nilo-Saharan ~ 28 (17–41)
Nilo-Saharan Afroasiatic ~ 16 (11–16)
Hadza Sandawe ~ 23 (17–23)
Khomani San Ju|’hoan ~ 30 (24–30)