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Table 2 Ancient plant DNA

From: Paleogenomics: reconstruction of plant evolutionary trajectories from modern and ancient DNA

Species Datinga Site Sample Characterizationb Extractionc Reference
Oak 500–9800 BP Europe Waterlogged wood NGS TrisHCL SDS CaCl2 EDTA DTT PK/Phchlo/Column [142]
Japanese cedar 3600 BP Japan Buried tree PCR/sequencing Column [133]
Maize 1100–6000 BP New World Desiccated cob PCR/sequencing CTAB TrisHCL NaCl EDTA/Chlo [111] [112]
Maize 360–1320 BP New World Desiccated cob PCR/sequencing Column [114]
Maize 670–5280 BP New World Desiccated cob Capture, NGS SDS DTT PK/Phchlo/Column [115]
Maize 650–4300 BP New World PCR/sequencing SDS DTT PK/Phchlo/EDTA PTB/Column [113]
Maize 4700 BP Chile, Peru Charred and non-charred grain PCR/sequencing SDS DTT PK/Phchlo [110]
Maize 5310 BP Mexico Desiccated grain NGS TrisHCL SDS CaCl2 EDTA DTT PK/Phchlo/Column [116]
Maize 5300 BP Mexico Desiccated cob NGS [117]
Sunflower 3100 BP USA Desiccated disk fragment, pericarp, kernel NGS TrisHCl NaCl SDS CaCl2 EDTA DTT PK/Phchlo/Column [119]
Radish 350–550 AD Egypt Desiccated seed Chemical analysis/PCR/sequencing CTAB TrisHCL NaCl EDTA/Chlo [124]
Sorghum 2800 BP Egypt Desiccated seed PCR/sequencing [125]
Rice 1200–2400 BC China Desiccated seed and chaff PCR/sequencing Magnetic beads [127]
Grape 1600–2500 BP Europe Waterlogged and charred pip PCR/sequencing DTAB /Chlo/CTAB [120]
Grape 7th–15th century AD Italy Waterlogged pip PCR SDS DTT PK/Phchlo/Column [121]
Grape, maize, olive, dogwood, cotton 400–2400 BP New World, Europe Non-carbonized remain PCR/sequencing SDS DTT PK/Phchl [122]
Barley 6200–5800 BP Israel Desiccated seed NGS CTAB TrisHCL PVP βME/Phchlo/Column [104]
Barley 3000 BP Egypt Desiccated grain PCR/sequencing SDS DTT PK EDTA PTB/Column [103]
Barley, wheat 150–5250 BC Spain Charred, partially charred, waterlogged seed PCR/sequencing TrisHCL SDS EDTA PK/Phchlo or Column [105]
Wheat 700 AD–8400 BP Anatolia Charred grain PCR/sequencing CTAB TrisHCL NaCl EDTA/Chlo [109]
Wheat 340–3500 BP Spain Charred and desiccated seed PCR/sequencing Tris EDTA CTAB βME/Column [108]
Cotton 750–3750 BP Brazil, Peru, Egypt Desiccated seed NGS CTAB/Column [132]
Arabidopsis 300 BP USA Herbarium NGS CTAB or PTB DTT/Column [131]
  1. Summary of ancient plant nuclear DNA recovery listing species, dating, location site, sample type, characterization method, extraction protocol, and associated references. aDatings are referenced as in the publication concerned using BC, AD, or BP. bPCR/sequencing polymerase chain reaction and sequence capture, NGS next-generation sequencing. cDDT dithiothreitol proteinase K, Phchlo phenol-chloroform, Ph phenol, Chlo chloroform, SDS sodium dodecyl sulphate, EDTA ethylene-diamine-tetraacetic acid, CTAB cetyltrimethylammonium-bromide, PTB phenacylthiazolium bromide, DTAB dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide, βME β-mercaptoethanol, Tris tris(hydroxymethyl) aminomethane, PK proteinase K