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Table 1 Different fold change cutoff threshold of sex-biased gene expression along five developmental stages in Rana temporaria

From: Evolutionary and developmental dynamics of sex-biased gene expression in common frogs with proto-Y chromosomes

Developmental stage Cutoff threshold (fold change) Female-biased (%)f Male-biased Sex-biased (p value)e
Gosner stage 23 5% FDRa 1 0 NA
≥ 2b 1 0 NA
≥ 4c 0 0 NA
≥ 8d 0 0 NA
Gosner stage 27 5% FDR 1 (11.1) 8 XY° bias tendency .
≥ 2 1 (11.1) 8 XY° bias tendency .
≥ 4 1 (11.1) 8 XY° bias tendency .
≥ 8 1 (11.1) 8 XY° bias tendency .
Gosner stage 31 5% FDR 10 (40) 15 XY° bias tendency .
≥ 2 10 (40) 15 XY° bias tendency .
≥ 4 10 (40) 15 XY° bias tendency .
≥ 8 8 (38.1) 13 XY° bias tendency .
Gosner stage 43 5% FDR 998 (86.8) 152 XX bias***
≥ 2 998 (86.9) 150 XX bias***
≥ 4 949 (89.4) 112 XX bias***
≥ 8 878 (94.2) 54 XX bias***
Gosner stage 46 5% FDR 9337 (60.5) 5999 XX bias***
≥ 2 8474 (63.7) 4823 XX bias***
≥ 4 4314 (92.2) 367 XX bias***
≥ 8 1910 (95.8) 84 XX bias***
  1. aBased on FDR correction for multiple testing. XY°-biased: log2(m/f) > 0, XX-biased: log2(m/f) < 0
  2. bXY°-biased: log2(m/f) ≥ 1, XX-biased: log2(m/f) ≤ − 1
  3. cXY°-biased: log2(m/f) ≥ 2, XX-biased: log2(m/f) ≤ − 2
  4. dXY°-biased: log2(m/f) ≥ 3, XX-biased: log2(m/f) ≤ − 3
  5. eSignificance codes are 0.001 ‘***’, 0.1 ‘.
  6. fPercentage among all sex-biased genes at certain developmental stage within a certain fold change category