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Table 3 Cox proportional hazards survival models output for phenotypic, epigenetic (DNAm), and genetic (polygenic) predictors of health and lifestyle factors, conditioned on the smoking DNAm score

From: Epigenetic prediction of complex traits and death

Trait Predictor HR 95% CI P
Alcohol Phenotypic 0.95 0.83–1.09 0.457
Epigenetic 1.11 0.97–1.28 0.134
Genetic 1.02 0.90–1.17 0.27
Smoking DNAm 1.46 1.29–1.65 1.4 × 10−9
Education Phenotypic 0.93 0.81–1.08 0.352
Epigenetic 1.00 0.85–1.17 0.979
Genetic 0.95 0.82–1.10 0.474
Smoking DNAm 1.48 1.29–1.70 1.8 × 10−8
BMI Phenotypic 1.23 1.06–1.42 0.005
Epigenetic 1.04 0.90–1.20 0.614
Genetic 1.09 0.94–1.26 0.263
Smoking DNAm 1.57 1.39–1.78 8.3 × 10−13
Total cholesterol Phenotypic 0.85 0.73–0.99 0.031
Epigenetic 0.95 0.81–1.12 0.542
Genetic 1.11 0.96–1.27 0.155
Smoking DNAm 1.49 1.32–1.68 9.7 × 10−11
HDL cholesterol Phenotypic 0.92 0.77–1.09 0.318
Epigenetic 0.92 0.78–1.08 0.307
Genetic 1.08 0.94–1.25 0.277
Smoking DNAm 1.48 1.31–1.67 3.0 × 10−10
LDL with remnant cholesterol Phenotypic 0.89 0.77–1.03 0.122
Epigenetic 0.99 0.84–1.17 0.910
Genetic 1.08 0.93–1.25 0.303
Smoking DNAm 1.49 1.31–1.68 3.3 × 10−10
Total:HDL cholesterol ratio Phenotypic 0.99 0.85–1.15 0.870
Epigenetic 1.12 0.95–1.30 0.170
Smoking DNAm 1.48 1.30–1.67 6.9 × 10−10
Waist-to-hip ratio Epigenetic 1.20 1.04–1.39 0.012
Genetic 0.94 0.82–1.07 0.361
Smoking DNAm 1.47 1.31–1.66 1.3 × 10−10
Body fat percentage Epigenetic 1.11 0.96–1.27 0.147
Genetic 1.19 1.04–1.36 0.013
Smoking DNAm 1.51 1.34–1.70 1.1 × 10−11
  1. Cox proportional hazards outputs are presented for models adjusting for age, sex, phenotypes (where applicable), polygenic scores (where applicable), white blood cell counts, and smoking DNAm scores. All effect sizes are per standard deviation