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Table 1 Long-noncoding-RNA-mediated nuclear mechanisms

From: The multidimensional mechanisms of long noncoding RNA function

Long noncoding RNA Function Reference
lncRNAs interacting with chromatin complexes
Fendrr Differentiation of tissues derived from lateral mesoderm [34]
HOTTIP Homeotic gene activation at the HOXA locus [35]
DBE-T Epigenetic regulation of the FSHD gene [36]
Kcnq1ot1 Lineage-specific imprinting at the Kcnq1 locus [37]
pRNA CpG methylation of rRNA genes [38]
Morrbid Survival control of myeloid cells [40]
Linc-Pint Epigenetic regulation of p53 response [41]
Chaer Epigenetic regulator in the development of cardiac hypertrophy [42]
PINC Pregnancy-induced, regulates mammary epithelial differentiation [43]
HOTAIR Silencing of the HOXD locus [44]
Braveheart Activation of cardiovascular progenitor [119]
ANRIL Transcriptional silencing to control cellular senescence [120]
lncRNAs as modulators of proteins and enzyme cofactors
NKILA NF-κB inactivation by inhibition of IκB phosphorylation [48]
lnc-DC Regulate genes involved in dendritic cell differentiation [49]
ncRNA-a Enhancer-like functions on the neighbouring genes [53]
CONCR Involved in DNA replication and sister-chromatid cohesion [54]
Lethe Prevents DNA binding of the RelA subunit of NF-κB [121]
lncRNAs binding DNA/RNA-binding proteins
linc-YY1 YY1-mediated regulation of myogenesis [64]
RMST SOX2-mediated regulation of pluripotency and neuronal differentiation [65]
GAS5 Regulation of the glucocorticoid response [58]
DINO Regulation of the DNA-damage-induced p53 response [59]
linc-p21 Repressor in p53-dependent transcriptional response [23]
SAMMSON Regulation of mitochondrial homeostasis and metabolism [122]
LUNAR1 Enhancing of IGF1 signalling [123]
lncRNAs forming R-loops and triple helixes
TERRA Maintenance of the telomeric structure [72]
VIM-AS1 Promotion of transcriptional activation of the VIM gene [75]
COOLAIR Negative regulation of FLC expression and flowering [77]
Khps1 Transcriptional activation of SPHK1 [82]
MEG3 Transcriptional regulation of genes of the TGF-β pathway [83]
lncRNAs in higher-order structures
Xist X chromosome inactivation [106]
Firre Role in adipogenesis; mediates inter-chromosomal interactions [107, 124]
NEAT1 Nucleation of paraspeckles [14, 15, 109]
MALAT1 Formation of nuclear speckles [110]
  1. FLC flowering locus C, NF nuclear factor, TGF transforming growth factor, YY1 Yin Yang 1