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Table 1 Differentially expressed genes with greatest absolute log fold changes

From: Natural genetic variation of the cardiac transcriptome in non-diseased donors and patients with dilated cardiomyopathy

   P value Adjusted P value Log fold change DCM associated TBX20 target CMP associated Comments
Gene symbol Description
NPPA Natriuretic peptide A 5.61E-09 2.38E-08 0.58 Yes No Yes Natriuretic factor A and B are used as markers of heart failure progression. Natriuretic factor implicated in development and marker of heart failure, also target of T-box factors [27,28,29,30]
NPPB Natriuretic peptide B 1.79E-06 5.57E-06 0.57 Yes Yes Yes See NPPA
TBX20 T-box 20 2.87E-25 3.01E-23 0.49 Yes No Yes TBOX20 has been associated with the pathophysiology of DCM in both animal models and human tissue [82] Furthermore, mutations in TBX20 are associated with familial DCM [83, 84]
MYLK3 Myosin light chain kinase 3 1.07E-21 3.15E-20 0.42 Yes No Yes Associated with stress adaptation and progression to heart failure [85,86,87]
CLIC5 Chloride intracellular channel 5 2.88E-26 5.40E-24 0.38 No No No CLIC5 is a member of the family of intracellular Ca2+ channels, associated with the actin cytoskeletal system. Thus far no link with DCM has been described
TRIM44 Tripartite motif containing 44 4.51E-28 3.73E-25 0.38 No No No Thus far no link with DCM has been described
MAVS Mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein 5.05E-25 4.67E-23 0.36 No No No Thus far no link with DCM has been described
NPR3 Natriuretic peptide receptor 3 3.68E-23 1.68E-21 0.36 No No Yes NPR3 is the receptor for natriuretic peptides in the heart; it is therefore a candidate for studies into the modulation of NPs in (DCM-related) heart failure [88].
SMCR8 Smith-Magenis syndrome chromosome region, candidate 8 3.66E-28 3.46E-25 0.34 No No No Thus far no link with DCM or the heart has been described
JAK2 Janus kinase 2 2.45E-22 8.67E-21 0.32 No Yes Yes JAK2/STAT3 signaling is, amongst other processes, involved myocardial infarction/reperfusion injury, and hypertrophic remodeling in mice. Thus far no direct link with DCM has been described [89]
TUBA3D Tubulin alpha 3d 1.66E-08 6.63E-08 -0.26 No No No Thus far no link with DCM or the heart has been described
GADD45B Growth arrest and DNA damage inducible beta 1.43E-08 5.75E-08 -0.27 No No Yes Changes in expression of GADD45B are observed in MI induced HF [90]
DLK1 Delta like non-canonical Notch ligand 1 9.83E-09 4.03E-08 -0.28 No No No Thus far no link with DCM or the heart has been described
TUBA3E Tubulin alpha 3e 1.17E-10 6.04E-10 -0.30 No No No Thus far no link with DCM or the heart has been described
GADD45G Growth arrest and DNA damage inducible gamma 2.87E-11 1.58E-10 -0.31 No Yes Yes Gadd45g overexpression promotes heart failure and cardiac remodeling after MI; while knockout mice are resistant to heart failure [91]
RASD1 Ras related dexamethasone induced 1 3.32E-07 1.14E-06 -0.32 No No No RASD1 may be involved in the cardiac release of ANF and BNP upon atrial volume overload in rats [92]. The RASD1 locus is associated with coronary artery disease in human GWAS [93]
MYL7 Myosin light chain 7 8.29E-10 3.89E-09 -0.33 No No No Thus far no link with DCM has been described
FOS Fos proto-oncogene, AP-1 transcription factor subunit 5.58E-08 2.09E-07 -0.33 No Yes Yes c-FOS is used as a marker of heart failure [94]
MYH6 Myosin heavy chain 6 2.12E-09 9.50E-09 -0.34 Yes Yes Yes MYH6 mutations are associated with familial DCM [95]
DHRS7C Dehydrogenase/reductase 7C 3.31E-09 1.45E-08 -0.39 No No Yes Decrease of DHRS7C is observed in mouse models of heart failure and in human cardiac tissue of heart failure patients [96, 97]