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Table 1 Examples of somatic and transgenerational stress memory

From: Epigenetic and chromatin-based mechanisms in environmental stress adaptation and stress memory in plants

Stress cue Maximal duration of memory (as analyzed) Plant-level effect Chromatin marks associated with priming Protein regulators Reference(s)
Somatic stress memory
 Desiccation 5–7 d Yes H3K4me3,
paused RNA Pol II
  [63]
 Desiccation 4 d ND H3K4me3   [64]
 Hyperosmotic 10 d Yes H3K27me3   [57]
 Salt 5 d Yes H3K4me3 HY5 [71]
 Heat, cold, or salt 7d Yes H3K14ac,
H3K4me2,
H3K4me3
HAC1 [70]
 Heat 3 d Yes H3K4me2,
H3K4me3
HSFA2 [54]
 Heat 3 d Yes Histone occupancy FGT1 [58]
 Systemic acquired resistance 4–6 d Yes H3K4me2, H3K4me3 HSFB1 [43, 46]
 Defense priming ND Yes Histone occupancy,
H3K4me3
CAF-1 [61]
Inter-/transgenerational stress memory
 Hyperosmotic Inter-generational Yes DNA methylation DNA methylation, DNA demethylation [95]
 Iron deficiency Inter-generational Yes    [93]
 Various Inter-generational ND    [81]
 Bacterial infection, chemical stressors Inter-generational Yes DNA methylation   [99]
 Bacterial infection Trans-generational Yes H3K27me3,
DNA methylation
DNA methylation [98]
 Caterpillar herbivory Trans-generational Yes DNA methylation NRPD2A, NRPD2B,
DCL2/DCL3/DCL4
[100]
  1. d days, ND not determined