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Table 1 Co-morbidities of autism spectrum disorders

From: Integrative analysis of genetic data sets reveals a shared innate immune component in autism spectrum disorder and its co-morbidities

Disease group Clinical manifestations References
Multisystem disorders (congenital anomalies, auditory disorders, Asthma Becker, 2007 [100];
infections, gastro-intestinal disorders, cardiac disorders etc.)   Doshi-Velez, Ge,
   and Kohane, 2014 [25]
  Bacterial and viral infections Atladóttir et al., 2010 [78];
   Atladóttir et al., 2012 [79];
   Garbett et al., 2012 [63];
   Hagberg, Gressens,
   and Mallard, 2012 [101]
  Chronic kidney disease Curatolo et al., 2004 [102];
   Loirat et al., 2010 [103]
  Cerebral palsy Surén et al., 2012 [104];
   Doshi-Velez, Ge,
   and Kohane, 2014 [25]
  Dilated cardiomyopathy Witchel, Hancox,
   and Nutt, 2003 [105];
   Bilder et al., 2013 [106]
  Ear infection/otitis media Konstantareas and
   Homatidis, 1987 [107];
   Rosenhall et al., 1999 [108];
   Porges et al., 2013 [109]
  Inflammatory bowel disease Horvath et al., 1999 [28];
  (Crohn’s disease, ulcerative Horvath and Perman, 2002 [29];
  colitis) Walker et al., 2013 [110]
  Muscular dystrophy Wu et al., 2005 [31];
   Hendriksen and Vles, 2008 [32];
   Hinton et al., 2009 [33];
   Kohane et al., 2012 [24]
  Upper respiratory infection Shavelle, Strauss,
   and Pickett, 2001 [111];
   Porges et al., 2013 [109];
   Bilder et al., 2013 [106]
Seizures Epilepsy Mouridsen et al., 1999 [26];
   Tuchman and Rapin, 2002 [27];
   Surén et al., 2012 [104];
   Bilder et al., 2013 [106]
Psychiatric disorders Schizophrenia Morgan, Roy,
   and Chance, 2003 [34];
   Tabarés-Seisdedos
   and Rubenstein, 2009 [112];
   Ingason et al., 2011 [113];
   Smoller et al., 2013 [14];
   Murdoch and State, 2013 [114]