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Table 3 Multivariate model that regresses epigenetic age acceleration on participant characteristics in the WHI. Coefficients and p values from regressing measures of intrinsic and extrinsic epigenetic age acceleration on participant characteristics from dataset 1

From: An epigenetic clock analysis of race/ethnicity, sex, and coronary heart disease

Multivariate linear regression Intrinsic EAA Extrinsic EAA
   Estimate (SE) p Estimate (SE) p
Race/ethnicity Hispanic vs. African American –0.94 (0.35) 0.007 3.363 (0.439) <10–15
  White vs. African American 0.71 (0.295) 0.016 1.94 (0.37) 1.6 × 10–7
HDL-cholesterol 0.006 (0.01) 0.558 –0.003 (0.013) 0.799
Triglyceride   0.003 (0.002) 0.059 0.004 (0.002) 0.04
Insulin   0 (0.001) 0.664 0.001 (0.001) 0.337
Glucose   0.003 (0.004) 0.486 0.007 (0.005) 0.112
CRP   0.023 (0.018) 0.215 0.052 (0.023) 0.023
Creatinine   0.703 (0.594) 0.237 1.985 (0.745) 0.008
BMI   0.035 (0.021) 0.103 0.045 (0.027) 0.093
Education High school (HS) vs. no HS 0.357 (0.426) 0.403 –0.784 (0.534) 0.142
  Some college vs. no HS 0.469 (0.381) 0.219 –1.171 (0.478) 0.014
  College vs. no HS 0.486 (0.519) 0.349 –2.253 (0.65) 0.001
  Grad school vs. no HS 0.36 (0.424) 0.396 –1.648 (0.531) 0.002
Alcohol Past drinker vs. Never 1.668 (1.1) 0.13 –0.598 (1.379) 0.665
  Light drinker vs. Never –0.101 (0.536) 0.85 –0.751 (0.672) 0.264
  Moderate vs. Never –0.416 (0.748) 0.578 –0.401 (0.937) 0.669
  Heavy vs. Never –0.354 (0.88) 0.687 –0.833 (1.103) 0.45
Smoking Former vs. Current –0.573 (1.039) 0.581 –0.104 (1.302) 0.936
  Never vs. Current –0.376 (1.039) 0.718 –0.122 (1.303) 0.925
Diabetes   0.216 (0.43) 0.616 –0.061 (0.539) 0.909
Hypertension   0.364 (0.241) 0.131 0.262 (0.302) 0.386
R-squared   0.029   0.069