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Table 5 Overview of the stepwise Mendelian randomization approach

From: Blood lipids influence DNA methylation in circulating cells

   b c d e
TG cg14476101    
  cg19693031
  cg07504977
  cg11376147    
  cg00574958
  cg17058475
  cg12556569   
  cg15863539    
  cg20544516    
  cg11024682
  cg08857797    
  cg03636183    
  cg02711608    
  cg27243685 1
  cg01881899
  cg06500161 1
  cg06690548    
  cg05575921    
  cg14817490    
  cg06560379    
  cg19589396    
LDL-C cg27168858
  cg00908766   
  cg05119988    
HDL-C cg17901584    
  cg26313301    
  cg27243685 2
  cg06500161 2
  1. Starting from associations between lipid levels and DNA methylation, a causal and unconfounded effect of lipid levels on DNA methylation was estimated (b), a direct effect of genetic variants on DNA methylation was excluded (c), reverse causation was excluded (d) and pleiotropy was excluded (e)
  2. A tick indicates a CpG passed step; a cross indicates a CpG failed step
  3. 1Egger regression only
  4. 2Multivariable MR only