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Table 1 Cytotoxic drugs investigated in this study

From: A comprehensive survey of the mutagenic impact of common cancer cytotoxics

Drug Class Mechanism DT40 treatment duration DT40 treatment concentration DT40 IC50 Clinical usage Clinical usage
Total plasma concentration Reference
Cisplatin Alkylating-like agent DNA adducts, crosslinks 1 h 10 μM 9.4 μM 1.3–3.9 μM [70]
Cyclophosphamide Alkylating-like agent DNA adducts, crosslinks 1 h 30 mM 67 mM 38.3–76.6 μM [71]
Hydroxyurea Antimetabolite Ribonucleotide reductase inhibition 24 h 20 μM 22 μM 150 μM–1 mM [72]
Gemcitabine Antimetabolite Nucleoside analogue 24 h 6 nM 10.9 nM 53.2 μM [73]
5-Fluorouracil Antimetabolite Nucleoside analogue, thymidylate synthase inhibition 24 h 6 μM 13.3 μM 770 nM–5.4 μM [74]
Etoposide Topoisomerase inhibitor Topoisomerase II inhibition 24 h 200 nM 234 nM 46–194 nM [75]
Doxorubicin Anthracycline DNA intercalation, topoisomerase II inhibition 24 h 2 nM 1.69 nM 73.6 nM–1.16 μM [76]
Paclitaxel Anti-microtubule agent Stabilises microtubules, blocks mitosis 24 h 40 nM 34 nM 1.5–6 μM [77]
  1. The name, class and basic mechanism of each drug used in this study is shown, together with the duration and concentration of mutagenesis assay treatments, the estimated IC50 concentrations under the same treatment conditions and data on the total plasma concentration range reported in clinical use, with the matching literature reference