CTCF binding and expression change during male and female development. (A) CTCF occupancy at Firre in mouse female ES cells PGK12.1 before (FES D0) and after 15-day differentiation (FES D15) and in female 12.5 dpc embryos (FE) is compared to occupancy in male mouse ES cells WD44 before (MES D0) and after 15-day differentiation (MES D15) and in male 12.5 dpc embryos (ME). ChIP-chip data are shown as log2 ChIP/input. (B) Box plots of CTCF occupancy (log2 ChIP/input) at Firre in male (MD0, MD15) and female (FD0, FD15) ES cells, 12.5 dpc embryos (ME, FE), and adult livers (ML, FL). Same data as in (A) and Figure 1B. (C)
Firre expression level is significantly higher in female than in male ES cells (undifferentiated, D0, differentiated, D15) and liver (box insert). Note that expression is much higher in ES cells than in liver. Expression in male ES cells (D0) is set as 1. Average expression levels were measured by qRT-PCR of biological replicates and normalized to 18S RNA. P values were determined by one sample t-test. Error bars, s.e.m. (D, E) Same analysis as in (A, C) for Dxz4.