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Table 1 Ten recurrent genes that are least associated with cancer in the literature

From: Systematic identification of cancer driving signaling pathways based on mutual exclusivity of genomic alterations

Gene Possible relevance for cancer
TRRAP This is a member of the PIK-related kinases family, and previously it was suggested it mediates transcriptional control of TP53 on MDM2 [32]. We find TRRAP in result groups both with PIK3CA and with TP53 for two subtypes of endometrial cancer.
AGAP2 Known to be over-expressed in cancer cells, and it was suggested it carries anti-apoptotic signals by activating nuclear phosphoinositol 3 kinases [33].
CERS2 A ceramide synthase. Ceramide was previously classified as a tumor-suppressor lipid [34].
RORC This is a nuclear receptor and it was previously associated with secondary lymphedema formation after breast cancer surgery [35].
NCSTN This is a component of the gamma-secretase complex, which cleaves many target proteins including Notch and Ecadherin. In a study, it was found to be over-expressed in about half of breast cancer cells, and its knock-down was shown to reduce cell invasion [36].
LAMA2 The alpha subunit of laminin. It functions in cell attachment and mobility. It is also known to function in a complex that activates Rho GTPases [37].
RIT1 This is a Ras-related GTPase, and is involved in the Ras-MAPK signaling cascade. Its mutations were recently classified as driver for lung adenocarcinoma cells [38].
OBSCN This gene functions in myofibrillogenesis, and is known to activate Rho GTPases [28,29].
RYR1 Ryanodine receptors are calcium release channels found in skeletal muscle and neuronal cells. It was previously reported that RyR expression occurs frequently in breast cancer and correlates with tumor grade [39].
SPTB This is a member of the spectrin family, which are membrane cytoskeletal proteins that function in cell membrane organization and stability. It was previously shown that another spectrin, SPTBN1, functions in TGF-beta signaling, and its loss can contribute to hepatocellular cancer [40].