Hypothesis testing involving non-zero thresholds. Shown are plots of the estimated fold change over average expression strength (“minus over average”, or MA-plots) for a ten vs eleven comparison using the Bottomly et al.  dataset, with highlighted points indicating low adjusted P values. The alternate hypotheses are that logarithmic (base 2) fold changes are (A) greater than 1 in absolute value or (B) less than 1 in absolute value. adj., adjusted.