Differentially expressed genes associate with inter-species differences in mark enrichment at transcription start sites. (A) Enrichment level differences for the five marks around TSSs of DE genes (black) and non-DE genes (grey) for each pair of species. Mark differences are considered with respect to the species associated with the lower gene expression level. DE genes are determined based on an FDR cutoff of 5%. (B) TSS regions associated with inter-species differences in any mark are enriched for DE genes. Plotted is the fold enrichment of TSS regions associated with inter-species differences in enriched marks in DE genes across pairs of species, for genes where the mark enrichment levels and the gene expression levels differ in the expected direction (that is, opposite for H3K27me3, same for the other four marks). Both the TSS regions associated with inter-species differences in enriched marks and DE genes are determined based on an FDR cutoff of 5%. Asterisks indicate significance levels from binomial tests (*P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001). C, chimpanzee; H, human; R, rhesus macaque.