Three worker castes ofPheidoleants. Minor and soldier worker castes are found in all Pheidole species, but supersoldiers (bottom right) are only found in some species, where they function as defenders or specialize in other distinct tasks such as seed milling, as in Pheidole tepicana shown here. Rajakumar et al.  have shown that supersoldier-like phenotypes can be induced by applications of juvenile hormone in Pheidole species that do not normally have this caste, implying that the underlying developmental potential is conserved. Photo © Alexander Wild, used with permission.