Effects of κ. (A) The effects of κ on clustering on the modularity of individual expression networks. As κ increases, the modularity scores of worm (green) and fly (blue) co-expression networks decrease. The fraction of metagenes whose components are found in the same modules decrease as κ increases. (B) The effects of κ on the modularity of the GO reference network. The modularity peaks at κ = 3, meaning that the modules defined by that particular value of coupling constant best separate the genes in terms of their GO annotations.