Expression dynamics of Globodera pallida effectors. (A) Heatmap of 123 effector genes highlights the expression of dorsal-gland like protein (DGL) genes in J2 and 4D06 (448) family effector homologs in early infection. A variety of effector-like genes is also expressed across stages. One chorismate mutase (CM) is expressed in J2, while another is expressed principally in early infection. (B) SPRYSEC genes are present in a wide range of nematodes, but are massively expanded in G. pallida. The phylogenetic tree shows that some homologs, including the two most highly expressed across stages, are distributed among those from other species. The G. pallida radiation is monophyletic however. Most copies are expressed and expression does not often correlate with phylogenetic clusters. Expression tends to be high during the early stage of parasitism, however one particular phylogenetic cluster shows high expression in eggs and males.