Comparative genomics of Globodera pallida and other plant parasitic nematodes. (A) Euler diagrams of shared presence-and-absence of gene families in plant-parasitic nematodes with published genome descriptions, the free-living model Caenorhabditis elegans and the spirurid animal parasite Brugia malayi. (B) Phylogenetic analysis of genome content. Tree shown is a maximum-likelihood phylogeny based on concatenated alignment of single-copy orthologs. Values on edges represent the inferred numbers of births (+) and deaths (-) of gene families along that edge. Note that our approach cannot distinguish gene family losses from gains on the basal branches of this tree, so for example the value of 1,476 gene family gains on the basal branch will include gene families lost on the branch leading to B. malayi. Pie charts represent the gene family composition of each genome - the area of the circle is proportional to the predicted proteome size, and wedges represent the numbers of proteins predicted to be either singletons (that is, not members of any gene family), members of gene families common to all six genomes, members of gene families present only in a single genome, and members of all other gene families.