Maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree of GSTe2 (coding and non-coding regions) across Africa. The analysis involved 92 sequences (2n) labeled. All positions with gaps and missing data were eliminated. There were a total of 881 positions in the final dataset. A resistant clade that is less polymorphic and dominated by the Benin population is clearly identifiable to the right of the tree whereas a susceptible clade that is more polymorphic and more cosmopolitan is at the left of the tree. BN, Benin; CAM, Cameroon; GH, Ghana; MAL, Malawi; MOZ, Mozambique; UG, Uganda.