L119F association with DDT resistance and GSTe2 variability across Africa. (A) Evidence of the strong correlation between L119F genotypes and DDT resistance in Gounougou (Cameroon) (25 resistant and 25 susceptible). (B) Differential distribution of L119F genotypes between DDT-resistant and DDT-susceptible mosquitoes. (C) The geographical distribution of L119F across Africa correlates with the DDT resistance distribution. (D) GSTe2 haplotype network (TCS) (coding regions only) across Africa, with resistant (grey) and susceptible (maroon) clades defined by L119F. Each haplotype is represented by a circular or rectangular shape and the size proportional to its frequency in the sample while mutational steps are represented by line numbers. (E) Genetic distances between six African populations based on GSTe2 sequences (Nst estimates). DDT, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane.