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Table 1 Evidence for links between diabetes and related metabolic traits from genetic studies

From: Recent progress in the use of genetics to understand links between type 2 diabetes and related metabolic traits

Primary trait Secondary trait Loci Result Reference(s)
Fasting glucose in the normal range Type 2 diabetes GCK and MTN1RBG6PC2 Variants at these loci have the strongest effects on fasting glucose but relatively small effects on risk of type 2 diabetesFasting glucose increasing allele is paradoxically associated with improved response to an oral glucose challenge [14, 18, 20]
Circadian rhythm Insulin secretion MTN1RB Variants in the melatonin receptor MTNR1B are associated with increased fasting glucose, impairment of insulin secretion from the pancreatic beta cell, and increased risk of type 2 diabetes [2, 23, 26]
Inflammatory marker CRP Obesity and metabolic syndrome phenotypes CRP CRP has no causal effect on obesity and development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, suggesting inflammation is not causally linked to obesity [28, 44]
BMI Circulating CRP FTO Obesity causally affects the circulating levels of CRP [28]
SHBG levels Type 2 diabetes SHBG Raised circulating SHBG levels reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes [35, 36]
Birth weight Type 2 diabetes CDKAL1, HHEX/IDE and ADCY5 Genetic variants that influence birth weight also influence type 2 diabetes risk [4042]
  1. BMI, body mass index; CRP, C-reactive protein; SHBG, sex hormone binding globulin.