Phylogenetic relationships across hymenopterans with sequenced genomes or transcriptomes. (a) Phylogeny inferred from a maximum-likelihood analysis of a set of 93 conserved proteins (see Materials and methods). The coleopteran Tribolium castaneum and the crustacean Daphnia pulex are used as out-groups. P. canadensis (blue) appears basal to a clade formed by ants (yellow) and bees (red), suggesting Vespoidea (ants + aculeate wasps) are not monophyletic. Non-maximal support values are indicated in the corresponding branches, and are based on Shimodaira-Hasegawa-like approximate likelihood ratio tests. This topology is statistically more supported than the alternative scenario in which Polistes is the sister group of ants (see Materials and methods). (b) Consensus tree from the Bayesian analysis places Polistes as sister group to the ants, supporting the classical scenario. All nodes received maximal posterior probability except the one supporting the monophyly of Vespoidea. Other differences between the maximum-likelihood and Bayesian analyses concern the internal branching order within bees and ants.