Cell detection and expression dynamics throughout the time series. (A) A systematic quantification of cells detected above threshold (relative expression >0.5) reveals five distinct clusters of cellular dynamics based on k-means clustering analysis (k = 5): activated, deactivated, transient, variable, and ubiquitous. (B) The ‘swarm-bee’ plots of ETS1 and PPARG reveal dynamic changes in cell number, transcript expression, and expression variation for each time point (rainbow). The changes in cell numbers and mean expression between every pairs of adjacent time points were calculated to explore differential modes of transcription: promoter-activation rate (blue line) and promoter-enhancement rate (purple line). (C) Density plots, based on Kernel Density Estimate (Gaussian) of ETS1 and PPARG, reveal the smooth distribution of single-cell expression across the time series, allowing population shift comparisons of the expression level across all time points.